ASSESSMENT OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN BOR TOWN, SOUTH SUDAN

ABSTRACT
In South Sudan like in many other developing countries, one to two thirds of the solid waste generated is not collected. There is a great problem in the household’ management of solid wastes in the rapid growing town of Bor in South Sudan. This study sought to generate information on solid waste handling practices, which could provide appropriate data that can be used to come up with strategies for managing solid waste. The research focussed on 384 respondents in Bor Town in order to assess the types and sources of solid waste generated, determine knowledge levels, practices and attitudes of people toward solid waste management (SWM) as well as factors and challenges faced in SWM in Bor town. The research instruments were pilot tested to determine the reliability of the instrument in Juba town, Central Equatoria State. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation were used to analyse the data. This study found that the major types of solid wastes generated in Bor town include plastic (41%), organic waste (29%) and papers (15%) which were obtained from places of residence, commercial, agricultural fields, institutions and construction sites. Open dumping (62.4) and burning (34.7%) were the most popular method of solid waste disposal. This study recommends that since some of the solid waste generated can be recycled (metals, glass, plastic), efforts should be made to link up with agencies dealing with waste recycling. The government/municipal council should launch a widespread awareness campaign to deal with the negative perceptions and low knowledge of the community toward solid waste disposal methods. Government efforts to build more waste disposal sites in the study area should be supported and necessary budget allocated and also to ensure to improve road infrastructure in the area to support easier waste disposal.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background information
According to Rushbrook and Pugh (1999), the term solid waste (SW) refers to municipal waste and can be categorized in seven groups. These are residential (household or domestic waste), commercial, institutional, street sweeping, construction and demolition, sanitation and industrial wastes. Municipal solid waste refers to solid wastes from houses, streets and public places, shops, offices and hospitals, which are often the responsibility of municipal or other governmental authorities of any country (Rush Brook and Pugh, 1999). Solid waste from industrial processes, are generally not considered municipal waste. However, solid waste from industrial processes should be taken into account when dealing with solid waste as they often end up in the municipal solid waste stream. The synonyms to solid waste are terms such as garbage, trash, refuse and rubbish (Zurbrugg, 2000).

Managing domestic, industrial and commercial waste has traditionally consisted of collection, followed by disposal (Soni, 2007). Depending upon the type of waste and the area, a level of processing may follow collection. This processing may be to reduce the hazard of the waste, recover material for recycling, produce energy from the waste, or reduce it in volume for more efficient disposal. The management of various types of solid waste over the years has been a difficult and challenging issue worldwide including South Sudan. Research reports elsewhere on waste management show that levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices have an influence on waste management (Brown, 1994; Ghosh, 2001; Palczynski, 2002).

Collection methods vary widely between different countries and regions. For example, in Australia most urban domestic households have a 240-litre bin that is emptied weekly by the local Council (Phase, et al, 2010). Many cities, especially those in less developed countries, do not have a formal waste-collection system in place. For example, solid waste disposal is a major problem in urban African towns, where more than half the population now lives. In urban areas, especially in the rapid urbanizing cities of the developing world, problems and issues of Municipal Solid Waste management (MSWM) are of immediate concern. This has been acknowledged by most governments, rapid population growth overwhelms the capacity of most municipal authorities to provide even the most basic services (Zurbrugg, 2000). Urban authorities have the responsibility to ensure safe, reliable and cost-effective removal and disposal of solid waste, which takes up a large proportion of available resources which are not adequate to cope with the magnitude of the problem (NEMA, 2000).Unfortunately, public agents and urban authorities do not have adequate capacity to handle the increased solid waste mainly due to limited public budgets (NEMA, 2000).

In South Sudan like in many other developing countries, one to two thirds of the solid waste generated is not collected (Zerbock, 2003). As a result, the uncollected waste, which is often also mixed with human and animal excreta, is dumped indiscriminately in the streets and in drainage channels in Bor town.

Statement of the problem
There is a great problem in the household’ management of solid wastes in the rapid growing city of Bor in South Sudan. The current population of the town is estimated at 221000 (UNMIS, 2010). In Bor town, domestic and municipal solid wastes are commonly found disposed of in open dumps, deposited in unoccupied land, water channels, and at the back of houses. The current practices of collecting, processing, and disposing of municipal solid wastes seem to be insufficient in the town. As a result of this, there is bad odour and the waste is likely to lead to water and air pollution. Such conditions have been associated with increased occurrences of diseases like diarrhea, malaria, cough and cholera in the town.However, there is little or no documented data concerning the current practices, attitudes and knowledge on solid waste management as well as challenges encountered in SWM in Bor that can be used in planning. There was need to document the current waste handling practices in order to provide a data base that can be used for planning in managing solid waste in Bor town.

Study objectives 
Broad objective
To generate information on solid waste handling practices, which could provide appropriate data that can be used to come up with strategies for managing solid waste.

Specific objectives
1. To assess the types and sources of solid waste produced.

2. To determine knowledge levels, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the community toward solid waste.

3. To document solid waste disposal practices.

4. To assess factors and challenges related to solid waste management.

5. To assess the existing policy framework for solid waste management

Research questions
1. What are the types and sources of solid waste produced?

2. What are the knowledge levels and attitudes of the community toward solid wastes?

3. What are the solid waste disposal practices?

4. What are the factors and challenges related to solid waste management?

5. What are the existing policy frameworks for solid waste management?

Justification
There is evidence that Africa is littered with open dump sites and other inefficient means of waste disposal mechanisms and South Sudan is inclusive, For instance; incinerators with inappropriate air pollution control devices (NEMA, 1998). Diseases associated with improper solid waste management has led to some untimely human death which was estimated to be up to 20000 in a year (NEMA, 1998). Poor waste management has been noted to result to pollution of both surface and ground water through leachate draining and impairing the permeability of soil as well as blockage of drainage systems (NEMA, 1998).

This study was aimed at generating information that will contribute to the existing body of knowledge in the areas of solid waste management and particular in Bor town. It is hoped that the findings of this study will enlighten the policy makers, local leaders and local people about the causes of poor waste management and how it would be mitigated. These findings will assist in drafting appropriate policies regarding solid waste management and the government will be in position to initiate programs that will empower citizens and make them aware of the challenges of poor waste management. Moreover, the findings of this study will also provide future researchers and scholars with appropriate information regarding disposal methods of solid wastes.

Scope of the study
The study was conducted in Bor town, the capital of the Jonglei State. The research focussed on 384 respondents in Bor Town in order to assess the types and sources of solid waste generated, determine knowledge levels, attitudes and practices of people toward solid waste management as well as factors and challenges faced in SWM in Bor town. The study used both quantitative and qualitative types of data. Moreover, the researcher reviewed documents, reports and collected data from already existing literatures. The data collected was used to evaluate how the existing disposal methods had been effective and efficient in managing solid wastes.

Assumptions and limitations
i. The data that was collected during the survey reflected the true status of the situations as at the time of the study.

ii. The study also depended on the assumption that the respondents answered the survey questions correctly and truthfully as expected.

iii. The study was limited by political instability since the country had been at war for more than twenty months which had made some areas inaccessible.

iv. There was no documented existing policy on waste management in the state which has limited my survey in tackling my objective five on existing policies.

Definition of terms and operationalization of terms in the context of this study Attitude- Refers to the positive and negative feeling of people toward waste management as well as any preconceived ideas that they may have towards it.

Integrated waste management- Defined IWM as the selection and application of appropriate techniques, technologies and management programmes to achieve specific waste management objectives and goals.

Knowledge- Refers to the community understanding of solid waste disposal methods, effects and diseases caused by poor solid waste disposal.

Municipal council- Refers to the authority responsible for waste management in the town.

Municipal waste- wastes generated from houses, streets and public places, shops, offices and hospitals.

Payam- Administrative area (Division).

Practice- Refers to the way in which people demonstrate their knowledge and attitude through their actions.

Solid waste (SW) - Refers to wastes generated from residential, commercial, institutions, constructions and agricultural fields.

Solid waste management (SWM) - Solid waste management encompasses collection, transportation and disposal of solid wastes.

Waste minimization- Refers to any source or recycling activity undertaken by those who generate the waste.

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Item Type: Kenyan Material  |  Attribute: 65 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: KSh900  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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