ANALYSIS OF PEACE EDUCATION CONTENT COVERED IN THE UPPER PRIMARY SCHOOL SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM IN KENYA

ABSTRACT
Peace Education in Kenya is one of the programmes in the primary school curriculum initiated by the Ministry of Education in February 2008. Peace Education is aimed at preparing learners to deal with contemporary social challenges in society. Peace Education Programme (PEP) is integrated into a comprehensive programme of substantive peace education content and pedagogy. PEP consists of basic principles and their application to real life. Peace Education aims at empowering learners with problem solving skills, ability to address conflicts peacefully, and thus promote tolerance for diversity, cultural differences and human dignity. Although pupils in Kenyan primary schools are expected to receive their Peace Education through primary school social studies curriculum but the approach seems not to provide pupils with necessary knowledge, skills and development of attitude and values conducive for social transformation. This implies that promoting peace is a major challenge in Kenyan primary schools through the carrier subjects such as social studies. This study therefore sought to analyse Peace Education content covered through the School Social Studies Curriculum (SSC) in terms of objectives of Peace Education and Citizenship Skills in order to find its status. The study adopted exploratory research design. Data was collected through content analysis using two tools, namely Peace Education objective analysis matrix (PEOAM) and citizenship skills analysis matrix (CSAM). Experts from Faculty of Education and Community Studies (FEDCOS) of Egerton University validated the instruments. Reliability of data analysis was done through inter-coder agreement by different research experts. Their comments were incorporated by the researcher after sufficient coding consistency was achieved. Descriptive Statistics such as frequency mean and percentage were used to analyse data with the help of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The study revealed that Peace Education content covered through the primary school SSC in terms of objectives of peace education and citizenship skills for peace education is of average status. The findings of the study will be of great value to all stakeholders in the education sector namely; the school administrators and teachers since they will be aware of how much peace education are covered in the curriculum. It will also benefit curriculum developers at Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD) in ensuring Peace Education contents are adequate and well infused in Social Studies Curriculum. Eventually, pupils having been imparted with adequate peace education knowledge and citizenship skills will become peaceful members of the society.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Education at all levels and in all its forms constitutes a vital tool for addressing virtually all global problems. Kenya has experienced some problems such as poverty, environmental degradation, social conflicts, diseases and ignorance that result into underdevelopment (Mbatha, 2009). Education is widely recognised as key to national and social economic development. It is the world’s single and most powerful weapon against problems which all the people of the world are waging now (Education for All [EFA], 2004). Thus, Education sector plays a central role in promoting a peaceful coexistence among the people hence reduces the possibility of using violence as a means of resolving conflicts.

Education plays a critical role in the long-term societal transformation and in preventing violence. The role of education in enhancing peace is expounded in the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO] constitution which states that “wars begin in the minds of men, and it is in the minds of men that defences of peace must be constructed’’ (UNESCO, 2001). This translates to educating people about peace, and the youths must be given priority because they can create a more safe society to develop a sustainable world. Through peace education, human beings can be taught to suppress their inherent nature of violence and strengthen their positive spirit-oriented nature patterned towards peace (Gumut, 2006). Children and youth are peace builders. When most young persons are oriented, tailored towards peace skills and peace knowledge, they become an enduring tool in enhancing long lasting peace (Kester, 2008).

Falade, Adeyemi & Olowos, (2011) defines peace as the existence of harmony either in an individual or in the society, community and nation or between nations. It is the absence of conflicts, belligerence, instability, strife, hostilities, negative propaganda and insecurity. Peace Education is the process of instilling knowledge, imparting skills, inculcating attitudes and values necessary to foster behaviour change that would enhance peaceful coexistence (UNESCO, 2009). This should start with the family, the school, the church and public institutions. Peace Education is taught to empower learners with problem solving skills, ability to address conflicts peacefully, and hence promote tolerance for diversity, cultural differences and human dignity (Ongeri, 2008; Chelule, 2014). Peace education was implemented on the assumption that young minds at the formative stage, need to be effectively equipped with values and attitudes that promote interdependence and respect for the human life and appreciation of the environment (Mutai, 2008). Thus, its basic learning content was required by pupils to enable them survive, develop their full capacities, live and work in dignity, participate fully in social-economic development activities, improve the quality of their lives and create a more safe society to develop a sustainable world.

Peace education is evidently an essential component of quality basic education. It adds value to the existing systems of education in order to ensure that it becomes relevant to real life experiences of the pupils to create an equitable society (Ardizzoni, 2003).World over; there has been a general emphasis on the need to implement Peace Education in the school curriculum as a way of establishing lasting peace. Education for peace is the best vehicle to ensure that children have the skills, knowledge, attitude and the motivation to create truly peaceful environment (Chelule, 2014). The school curriculum should empower learners with the ability to live in peace with their neighbours. Children should be provided with the skills to live in peace and to create mutual respect and understanding that may enable them to transform their lives and of the region into one of cooperation, prosperity and freedom (Ministry of Education [MOE], 2008a).

Despite its importance, Peace Education has not really taken hold in the school systems around the world (Harris & Morrison, 2003). The search for global peace has continued to task human civilization beyond their understanding. The degree of conflict in the world seems to be at disequilibrium with peace while the human value is threatened and the fear of human extinction questions some of the actions (Albert & Oloyede, 2010). During the 2000 World Education Forum in Dakar, governments identified conflicts as a major barrier towards attaining Education for All (UNESCO, 2009). Subsequently many countries were encouraged to take actions that would foster a culture of peace through education. A few countries such as Philippines and Cuba have used United Nations mandates to stimulate formal school- based Peace Education activities, but lack resources for training teachers in the various complexities of peace education (Salomon, 2002).

The global Campaign for peace education was supported by the Hague Appeal for Peace (HAP). The HAP encourages the support of education programme that would work towards the creation of a culture of peace. According to HAP, (Reardon & Cabezudo, 2002) a culture of peace would be achieved when citizens of the world understand global problems, have the skills to resolve conflicts and struggle for justice non-violently, lived by international standards of human rights and equity, appreciate cultural diversity and respect the earth and each other.

In Africa, countries such as Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda, Tanzania and Burundi have developed Peace Education Programs in response to myriad social, cultural, economic and political challenges (Abebe, Gbesso & Nyawalo, 2006). The need for Peace Education in African countries is as real as it is for any conflict or post conflict country anywhere else in the world. The crises are mainly caused by corruption, violence, poverty, environmental degradation, epidemics such human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV and AIDS) and Ebola as well as youth’s unemployment. Mutai, (2008) further observed that Peace Education should be seen as a basic necessity. Thus, its specific goals such as resolving conflicts and raising consciousness should be targeted at children, families, schooling and the communities.

In Kenya, Peace Education Program (PEP) began as a pilot project in two refugee camps in Kakuma in Turkana County and Dadaab in Garissa County in 1997 (UNESCO, 2005). It was felt that if Peace Education is embedded in broader structural interventions on educational access and quality, it would help and protect refugees and particularly children from the full impact of conflict and violence. For this reason, PEP was designed to incorporate a school aspect and community aspects. The initial program was supported by UNESCO, UNHCR and INEE (Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies) and aimed at initiating PEP for Primary School pupils, so as to allow them practice skills and values associated with peaceful behaviour. The current school social studies curriculum in Kenya addresses issues related to citizenship, patriotism and fostering of national unity, which are aspects of Peace Education as stated in the Education goals of Kenya (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology [MOEST], 2010).

Social Studies is one of the disciplines taught at the primary school level in Kenya. It is an integrated study of social sciences and humanities to promote civic competence (Ondiek, Muraya & Kanjoya, 2010). The National Council of Social Studies (NCSS, 2005) asserts that the primary purpose of social studies is to help children and the youth develop the ability to make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good as citizens of a culturally diverse and democratic society. Social Studies as such play a major role on the teaching of Peace Education and promotion of the development of the society and spirits of self-reliance and nationalism among school going children (MOEST, 2002). The course also provides learners with opportunity to appreciate the changing environment in which they live and realize their own place, privileges, rights and responsibilities as citizens. Through social studies, pupils learn the relationship between causes and effects of various social issues. However, little is known regarding the status of peace education content included in social studies curriculum in Kenya.

The structure of primary school education is in three sections that is lower primary having classes 1-3, middle classes 4 and 5 and upper primary classes 6-8. The upper primary classes were considered in this study because the pupils have studied some topics of Peace Education in social studies since class one and have developed cognitive and social interpersonal skills that help in processing information. The main purpose of primary education is to prepare pupils to participate in the social, political and economic wellbeing of the country and prepare them to be global citizens ("Education Info Centre," 2006; KICD, 2010). Thus, through peace education pupils are expected to acquire citizenship skills to enhance peaceful co-existence. These skills include; gaining knowledge, process information, examining values and beliefs and actively participate as citizens in society (MOEST, 2002).

The increasing level of indiscipline, conflict and violence in secondary schools is not only worrying but is also casting some doubts on the effectiveness of Peace Education at Primary Schools level (Ongeri, 2008). The reality is that the coverage of Peace Education in Primary Schools through carrier subjects such as social studies needs serious and urgent attention in order to benefit our young people and make them become responsible adults and free from violence. This study therefore analysed the upper primary school SSC with a view of establishing the status of peace education coverage in the curriculum.

Statement of the Problem
Kenya has been making progress in the area of curriculum change and innovation, program development and work related to NGO’s in addressing issues related to peace building. Peace is one of the core values that enhance the acquisitions of life skills and mutual co-existence of human beings. The Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD) formerly known as the Kenya Institute of Education (KIE) has mainstreamed Peace Education concepts/themes in to the primary school Social Studies Curriculum since 2000. This was as a result of using insecurity and concern of peace related issues such as tribal conflicts, terror attack, family violence and school unarrest as well as social decadency such as use of illicit drinks, rape and drugs abuse among others. Although pupils are expected to receive their Peace Education through such curriculum, currently this approach seems not to provide pupils with the necessary knowledge, skills and development of attitude and values required for a peaceful society. There is therefore need to analyse peace education content covered in the upper primary school social studies curriculum in terms of objectives of peace education and citizenship skills for peace education in Kenya.

Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to find out the status of peace education content covered in the upper primary school social studies curriculum in terms of the Objectives of Peace Education and Citizenship Skills for Peace Education.

Objectives of the Study
This study was guided by the following objectives.

i. To determine the status of peace education content covered in terms of objectives of peace education in the upper primary schools social studies curriculum.

ii. To determine the status of peace education content covered in terms of citizenship skills in the upper primary schools social studies curriculum.

Research Questions
This study was guided by the following research questions

i. What was the status of peace education content covered in terms of objectives of peace education in the upper primary school social studies curriculum?

ii. What was the status of peace education content covered in terms citizenship skills ins the upper primary school social studies curriculum?

Significance of the Study
The findings of the study will be useful to the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development in helping them design curriculum and instructional materials which will include the training manual and teacher activity books at large. Further, the findings of this research will assist education officers, institutional administrators, teachers and pupils in realizing the need for positive behaviour change and enhancing peaceful living in their communities and country.

Curriculum planners and developers will be useful in their infusion of Peace Education themes in to the social studies curriculum properly. It will also assist the society at large in emphasising the need for Peace Education.

The Scope of the Study
This study focused on analysing upper primary social studies curriculum in Kenya, in terms of objectives of peace education and citizenship skills. This is because in upper primary classes, pupils have developed cognitive capabilities on the study of Peace Education.

Limitations of the Study
In Kenya there is no formal Peace Education Curriculum, hence objectives of Peace Education used was adapted and modified from those developed by UNESCO (1995).

Assumptions of the Study
This study was undertaken with the assumption that Peace Education themes are covered in social studies curriculum.

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Item Type: Kenyan Material  |  Attribute: 70 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: KSh900  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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