THE INFLUENCE OF FOREIGN REALITY TV PROGRAMME "KEEPING UP WITH THE KARDASHIANS ON NIGERIAN YOUTH " A STUDY OF UNILAG STUDENTS

CHAPTER ONE 
BACKGROUND OF STUDY 
Individuals now more than ever have many viewing choices in deciding how to spend their time with television. With the explosion of cable programming channels, many different genres of programming are competing for niche market audiences. (Hiebert & Gibbons, 2000). One of the programming types that has rapidly gained popularity across all TV channels in recent years is reality television programming. 

The reality TV series, which this study will be focusing, ‘Keeping Up With The Kardashians’, which after several seasons has become one of the most popular reality TV programmes. This television series, ‘Keeping Up with the Kardashians’ is one among many such programmes television air to quench their ever-thirsty audiences thirst for reality television programming. 

This study is prompted by the widespread criticism of the show for emphasizing and gratifying conducts contrary to ethical social values and how this is influencing the lifestyle of youths who are the bulk of its viewers. This study will be useful in understanding how this show influences youth and to what extent it does. In essence, this is a study of the Influence of the Reality Television Series, ‘Keeping Up with the Kardashians’ on youths (a Study of the Undergraduates of the University of Lagos) 

Though television seems a thoroughly modern invention available only since mid 20th century. Cable television on the other hand is a system of broadcasting television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency. Cable television has really paved a new part for reality television programming as it enables people from all corners of the world to have access to programs aired a continent away from them. 

Reality-based entertainment has a history as long as human civilizations. It ranges from harmless 'people watching' to the depravity of Roman circuses. On the big screen, the first films of the Lumiere brothers in the 1890s could be called reality-based entertainment. They showed ordinary people going about their daily lives - clocking off at a factory or catching a train. 

The first reality television show is generally agreed to be the American comedy program Candid Camera (1948). The show used hidden cameras to film unsuspecting ordinary people faced with odd or embarrassing situations - such as a coin glued to a footpath or a talking mailbox (that only they could hear). When the embarrassment reached its peak, the camera would be revealed with the line, 'Smile, you're on Candid Camera!' It has not been until recently that these types of shows have gained immense popularity. The increase in reality programming is undoubtedly related to the increasing number of cable channels, which allows advertisers to reach niche markets (Hiebert and Gibbons, 2000). Hill (2005) posited that one of the reasons the reality genre has been so powerful in the television market is that it appeals to younger adults in particular. Frank (2003) suggests that the younger viewers are drawn to these shows because they depict characters and situations that are relevant to their everyday lives. While there are different genres within the reality television programming some of which includes; talent, quiz, talks and game shows. Some popular reality shows such as Survivor is about manipulating relationships to outlast everyone. Real World is about maintaining relationships while cohabitating. 

‘Keeping Up with the Kardashians’ is an American reality television series that has aired on E! (Entertainment Television) since October 14, 2007. The series was a hit in its first month and it became the highest rated series on Sunday nights for ages 18 to 34 and was seen by 13 million viewers according to data from Nielsen Media Research. The series focuses on the personal and professional lives of the Kardashian-Jenner family, which evolves around sisters Kim, Kourtney, and Khlo√©Kardashian. It additionally places emphasis on their brother Rob Kardashian, their mother Kris Jenner, their stepfather Bruce Jenner, their half-sisters Kendall and Kylie Jenner, and Kourtney's boyfriend Scott Disick. ‘Keeping Up with the Kardashians’ has received moderately favorable reviews from critics (IMDB). However, the bashing criticisms out weigh the positive remarks. The show is criticized for fabricating its storyline and promoting conducts regarded as ill for the society, considering the bulk of its audience are youths. This no doubt leads to the underlying assumption that this study is based upon. Reality television programming provides viewers with perceptions regarding their attitudes, appearances, thinking and overall lifestyle and even interpersonal relationships. Therefore the goal of this study is to understand how this contents disseminated in the reality television series, ‘Keeping up with the Kardashians’ influences lifestyle of audience members with focus on youths. 

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 
The existence of cable television has led to the massive importation of programmes with pure foreign and western contents, among which includes the reality television series, ‘Keeping Up with the Kardashians’. The predominant problem is the imitation of foreign lifestyle by youths, which is evident in the choice of dressing, hairstyles etc. It is also safe to say that youths are brainwashed by what is portrayed on television screens. According to Griffin (2008) Television gives a coherent picture of what exists, what is important, what is related to what and what is right. In the light of the assertion by Griffin, television is a learning technology and most of what is received from it, is perceived real and true which is not so as television also contains fictional programmes. It is to be noted that television contains some messages, which needs adequate media literacy to differentiate what is real from what is not in order to properly understand. In developing countries such as Nigeria, where resources limit domestic productions, a majority of programs for youths are imported. Unfortunately, much of the content contains characters and messages that, at best, are simply not relevant to local cultures, and at worst convey a homogenized western ideology, which leads erosion of our cultural lifestyle as youths are now engulfed in the western ways. 

OBJECTIVE OF STUDY 
The objective of this study is as follows: 

1. To examine how often respondents watch the reality television series, ‘Keeping Up with the Kardashians’. 

2. To determine the factors that influences viewership of the reality television series, ‘Keeping Up with the Kardashians’. 

3. To examine the extent it the reality television series, ‘Keeping Up with the Kardashians’ influences youth’s perception of reality. 

4. To examine the influence of the reality television series, ‘Keeping Up with the Kardashians’, on the lifestyle of respondents. 

RESEARCH QUESTIONS 
The following questions are what these study strives to provide answers to 

1. How often do respondents watch the reality television series, ‘Keeping Up with the Kardashians’? 

2. What are the factors that influence viewership of the reality television series, ‘Keeping Up with the Kardashians’? 

3. To what extent does the reality television series, ‘Keeping Up with the Kardashians’ influences youth’s perception of reality? 

4. Does the reality television series, ‘Keeping Up with the Kardashians’ influence the lifestyle of respondents? 

SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY 
This study will examine the influence of reality television series, ‘Keeping Up with the Kardashians’ on youths only. The respondents of this research will be the undergraduates of the University of Lagos. 

SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY 
This research will help the government and other policy makers to put adequate measures in place for the influx of foreign contents and also encourage local producers to produce contents that are entertaining, culturally and morally relevant to suit and quench the thirst for foreign programmes. This study will also help to increase understanding of how television and its content influences the lives of youths in Nigeria with focus on the undergraduate of University of Lagos. 

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS 
Reality Television shows: are programmes involving filming the action and reactions of people in a set situation. This situation can be a naturally one or it can be a completely contrived one. 

Influence: The capacity or power of persons or things to be a compelling force on or produce effects on the actions, behavior, and opinions of others. 

Lifestyle: The habits, attitudes, taste, moral standards, economic level and others that constitute the mode of living of an individual or group.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 55 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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