PRODUCTION OF HAND WASHING SOAP

ABSTRACT 
In this project work, the researcher analyzed the properties of hand washing soap to be an excellent cleanser because of its ability to remove stains from surfaces. 

The researcher work was based mainly on Internet print out, textbooks and experimentation. 

Experiment was carried out using some raw materials to produce this hand washing soap of which the result formed the basis of this study and determined the conclusion, which in turn informed the recommendations. 

CHAPTER ONE 
INTRODUCTION 
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY 
Soap is a universal surface-active agent and is use in many household and industries. There are many types of soap based on the method of production and the materials used. Soap can be prepared in a small scale or large scale. The small-scale process can be done either at home or laboratory following the scientific and technical process. The making of soap can be quite interesting if done with knowledge and adequate skills, which a student in a higher institution of learning should be able to accomplish. 

Early attempts at soap production relied on ash production by burning various vegetable materials, as a makeshift source of alkali. For example, in Spain, the plant salsola was burned to produce an alkaline ash called barilla, this used in conjunction with locally available olive oil, offered a good quality soap which by salting-out or “graining” boiled liquor with brine allowed the soap to float to the surface leaving lye, vegetable coloring and impurities to settle out. This produced what was probably the first white hard soap. 

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 
The following statements of problems are hereby formulated to assist in this research work of hand washing soap production. 

1. What raw materials are required to produce high quality hand washing soap? 

2. What are the steps to follow in producing the hand washing soap 

3. How can the soap produced be tested 

4. How durable is the soap produced. 

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 
The purpose of this research work is to produce high quality hand washing soap that can be used at home by family members. The soap produce should have no unpleasant effect on skin; instead it should have a pleasant odour and scent with suiting cosmetic effect on the skin when used for washing. Soap produce under laboratory condition with the masses of the materials adequately ascertained. 

1.4 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY 
The research work is significant for the following reasons: 

1. It will help to inculcate laboratory skills and techniques on the researcher, which can later help in the real work. 

2. Since chemistry is an experimental discipline, it means the science students should carryout research based on laboratory method. 

1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 
This research work is limited to laboratory scale process, which is far better than local method. However, it does not make use of industrial scale since it is not an industrial research. 

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS 
DETERGENTS: These are soap-like emulsifier that contains a sulfonate-SO3-, sufate SO3-, or phosphate group instead of a carboxylate group-used for removing soil from clothes, dishes and other materials. 

EMULSIFYING AGENT/EMULSIFIER: This is a substance that coats the particles of a dispersed phase and prevents coagulation of colloidal particles. 

HARD WATER: A water containing Fe3+ Iron (III) ion, magnesium ions (Mg2+) which forms precipitate with soap. 

SOAP: This is an excellent cleanser that can suspend oil and dirt in such a way that it can be carried away with water. It can equally be defined as a universal surface active agent that removes dirt’s from surfaces like skin, clothes etc. which is used in many household and industries. 

SURFACE SURFACTANT/SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENT: This is a substance which when present at a low concentration in a system has the property of adsorbing onto the surfaces or interface of the system, thereby altering the surface or inter-facial free energies of the surfaces (or interfaces) e.g. soap, detergents, motor oils etc.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 65 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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