PREVALENCE OF DIARRHEA AMONG CHILDREN 1-5YEARS IN URHEZEN COMMUNITY OVIA SOUTH WEST LGA

ABSTRACT
Globally, diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children. It is one of the highest ranked cause of child mortality rate in Nigeria with about 19% of all deaths of children aged below 5 years. Poor sanitation, unsafe water and inappropriate personal hygiene are responsible for 90% of diarrhea occurrence globally. 

This study sought to assess the prevalence of diarrheal disease among children 1-5 years in Urhezen community in Ovia south West L.G.A., Nigeria. 

This was a cross-sectional study that used a mixed methods approach. Participants were selected through a two-stage sampling process. 

There was high prevalence of diarrhea among children in Urhezen community in Ovia south West L.G.A. in Nigeria. The diarrhea is more likely to occur among children who are less than 25 months of age. Other factors that are independently associated with diarrhea in Ovia south West, Urhezen community are the caregivers’ marital status, as well as their water, sanitation and hygiene practices. 

The government, the community and the Health and Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) implementing agencies in Nigeria should consider: increasing awareness on care for children under 25 months of age who are most vulnerable to diarrhea. 

CHAPTER ONE 
INTRODUCTION 
• Background 
There are numerous definitions of diarrhea. World Health Organization defined diarrhea as the passage of three or more loose or liquid stools per day, or more frequently than normal for the individual (WHO, 2013). Epidemiologist also defined diarrhea as the alteration in a normal bowel movement characterized by an increase in the water content, volume, or frequency of stools (Guerrant & Van Gilder, 2001). It accompanied by vomiting, fever, and abdominal pain (Harrison, 2015. The most common causes of diarrhea are variety of bacterial, viral and parasitic organisms’ as well non-infectious agent, such as, food allergy, dietary indiscretion or a new medication ((Mobalk K, 2000; Kakulu, 2012; Willie, Valerie, and David, 2012; Hossain, 2013; Mustafa & Hassan, 2012; Leopold & Kangam, 2013 and Amerine & Keirsey, 2006). Most pathogens that cause diarrhea share a similar mode of transmission from the stool of one person to the mouth of another. This is known as feacal- oral transmission. The infectious agents are spread through contaminated food, drinking water and of poor hygiene (UNICEF/WHO, 2009a; WHO, 2013; Edward Buzigi, 2015). 

There are three clinical types of diarrhea: namely: Acute Watery Diarrhea (AWD), Dysentery and Persistent Diarrhea (WHO, 2013). 

AWD refers to diarrhea which is less than two weeks (Harrison, 2015). It is commonly caused by rotavirus and accounts for 40 per cent of the diarrheal episodes that lead to hospital admission worldwide (Blanca Ochoa, 2012; UNICEF/WHO, 2009a). The most common complication is dehydration that occurs when there is excessive loss of fluids and minerals (electrolytes) from the body (Mobalk K, 2000). Dehydration is especially dangerous infants and young children due to rapid body water turnover, high body water content and relatively larger body surface (Mobalk K, 2000; WHO, 2005a). 

Dysentery refers to diarrhea containing blood and mucus in feaces (World Gastroenterology Organisation, 2012). It accounts for 10% to 15% of diarrheal episodes in children under the age of 5 years, but up to 25% of diarrheal deaths. The main dangers associated with dysentery are damage to the intestinal mucosa, sepsis, malnutrition and dehydration. Shigellosis is most common causes of bloody diarrhea (WHO, 2005b). 

This study determined the prevalence of diarrheal disease among children 1-5 years in Urhezen community Ovia south West L.G.A., Nigeria. 

• Statement of the Problem 
Diarrhea remains the second leading cause of death among children under five years globally and mainly in sub Saharan Africa (CDC, 2015; Pond, Rueedi, & Pedley, 2004). Each year, an estimated 2.5 billion cases of diarrhea occur among children under five years of age worldwide. Each day diarrhea kills around 2,195 children under five. It kills more young children than AIDS, malaria and measles combined (CDC, 2015; UNICEF/WHO, 2009a). In Nigeria, more than two decades of the war and ongoing civil unrest led to further deterioration of Nigeria's health situation. Limited access to basic health and WASH services due to insecurity and instability has contributed to the spread of diarrhea in Nigeria (UNOCHA, 2018). 

Although there are numerous studies on the determinants of diarrheal diseases among children 1-5 years worldwide (Pond, Rueedi, & Pedley, 2004; UNICEF/WHO, 2009a; CDC, 2015), there is very scanty documented information on the associated factors of diarrhea among children in Urhezen community. This study sought to generate information on the prevalence of diarrheal disease and associated factors among children 1-5 years in Urhezen community Ovia south West L.G.A., Nigeria. The findings will be useful for the Nigeria government and other stakeholders in designing community-based interventions of diarrheal diseases among children living in Urhezen community. 

• Study Objectives 
• Broad Objective 
The aim of study was to determine the prevalence of diarrheal disease among children 1-5 years in Urhezen community Ovia south West L.G.A., Nigeria. 

• Specific Objectives 
• To determine the prevalence of diarrheal disease among children 1-5 years in Urhezen community in Ovia south West L.G.A., Edo state, Nigeria. 

• To assess knowledge of caregivers regarding childhood diarrheal disease in Urhezen community in Ovia south West L.G.A., Edo state, Nigeria. 

• To assess the attitude of caregivers regarding childhood diarrheal disease in Urhezen community in Ovia south West L.G.A., Edo state, Nigeria. 

• Research Questions 
• What is the prevalence of diarrheal disease among children 1-5 years in Urhezen community in Ovia south West L.G.A., Edo state, Nigeria? 

• What are the factors associated with diarrheal disease among children in Urhezen community in Ovia south West L.G.A., Edo state, Nigeria? 

• What are the knowledge, attitude and practices of caregivers regarding childhood diarrheal disease in Urhezen community in Ovia south West L.G.A., Edo state, Nigeria? 

• Justification of the Study 
Diarrheal disease is one of the major public health problems that cause morbidity and mortality in children in Nigeria (World Bank, 2015;CDC, 2015).Globally, an estimated 1,400 children under the age of five years die every day from diarrheal diseases (UNICEF, 2016). An estimated 90 percent of under-five mortality from diarrhea are due to use of contaminated drinking water, poor sanitation and inadequate hygiene (UNICEF, 2013). Interventions, such hygiene education and promotion of hand washing have been found to contribute to a reduction in diarrheal cases up to 45 % (WHO, 2004; UNOCHA, 2018). The situation of Urhezen community in Ovia south West L.G.A., Edo state is attributed to poor knowledge in health and feeding practices; inappropriate traditional beliefs and poor hygiene and sanitation with inadequate safe water supply (UNICEF, 2013; UNOCHA, 2018). The findings from this study will provide a basis for interventions in management and control of diarrhea in Urhezen community in Ovia south West L.G.A. 

1.6 Definition of Terms 
• Diarrhea: A condition in which faeces are discharged from the bowels frequently and in a liquid form. 

• Prevalence: A proportion of a particular population found to be affected by a medical condition (typically a disease or a risk factor such as smoking or seat-belt use) at a specific time 

• Under-five-children: Children who are less than five years old, especially those who are not in full-time education. 

• Disease: A disorder of structure or function in a human, animal, or plant, especially one that produces specific symptoms or that affects a specific location and is not simply a direct result of physical injury. 

• Post-natal: Occurring or being after birth specifically: of or relating to an infant immediately after birth 

• Health: A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 53 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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