The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of teachers’ characteristics and parental factors students’ academic achievement in Biology. The study was guided by education production function which connects student’s academic performance in Biology to teachers’ characteristics and parental factors in Ibadan North East L.G.A. four research questions and two hypothesis guided the study. The target population was comprised of 120 Biology teachers in Ibadan North East Local Government Area. The study applied a descriptive research design. A questionnaire and an interview guide techniques were used for data collection. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. The study revealed that teacher characteristics have enormous influence on pupils’ academic performance in public primary schools. The teachers’ attitude on pupils, the demographic characteristics of teachers and their qualification had a significant influence on pupils’ academic achievements. The researcher therefore recommends immediate measures taken on reducing teacher - pupil ratio so as to enable individual education programmes taken on learners, device away of monitoring and evaluating the curriculum implementation in schools to ensure complete syllabus coverage is done. 

1.1 Background of the Study 
Teachers have a direct responsibility to shape a student’s academic performance, and are the most important school based factor in their education (Rockoff, 2004; Rivkin, HanushekKain 2005; Aaronson, Barrow & Sander, 2007). This is why it is important to examine which teacher characteristics may be related to student academic performance. 

Considering which teacher characteristics produce the best student academic performance at the Senior Secondary School level can help the school in identifying unique ways to increase student performance with the teacher resources available to them. 

Excellence in academic life demands high level of intelligence; but in addition to intelligence, recent studies have indicated that there are other factors that can be useful predictors of academic performance (Busato, Prins, Elshout, &Hamaker, 1999, 2000; Chamorro Premuzic&Furnham, 2003). One of the factors is teachers’ characteristics and parental factors. 

Teachers cannot be undermined in the discussion of knowledge transfer or education in every way. Teachers are very instrumental to the transfer of knowledge. Ali (2009) observes that there is a statistically significant relationship between teachers’ characteristics and parental factors and student academic performance. 

According to Thompson, Greer, & Greer (2005) there are twelve characteristics that are central to what students conceptualize as good teaching which connect to the caring for students, both academically and personally and strengthen recent indicators for academic performance. 

These characteristics are: displaying fairness, having a positive outlook being prepared, using a personal touch, respecting students, maintaining high expectations. Possessing a sense of humor, possessing creativity, admitting mistakes, and being forgiving, showing compassion and developing sense of belonging for students. 

As humans, we possess an ingrained sense of fair play. We react negatively whenever we are dealt with by someone in a manner that violates what we think constitutes fairness in a situation. Any sign of favoritism, or lack of fairness, can leave scars that last a lifetime. 

Borich (2000) suggests that effective teachers are those who use meaningful verbal praise to get and keep students actively participating in the learning process. 

Effective teachers are generally positive minded individuals who believe in the success of their students as well as their own ability to help students achieve. 

Competence and knowledge of the content area being taught is something that makes a well-prepared teacher more likely to take time during lessons to notice and attend to behavioral matters, effective use of instructional time, student participation and thereby, academic success. 

Teachers must show interest in their students, as this promotes bonding. Teachers with a sense of humor make learning fun. If a teacher has a quick wit and the ability to break the ice in difficult situations with the use of humor, students recognize the strength reflected in these teachers, as they provide a wonderful model for how to deal with embarrassing situations effectively. 

Students remember unusual things that their teachers did in their teaching. They remember how it related to a subject matter being taught which captivated their interest. 

Irvine (2001) suggests that students defined teachers who set limits, provides structure, held high expectations and pushed them to achieve as their favoriteteachers. Generally, these behaviors affect student learning. Working to include these traits into everyday teaching routines will ensure that students have a positive school experience as well as a successful one. 

Rice (2003) recognized five broad categories of teacher attributes that appear to contribute to teacher quality. They are experience, preparation programs and degrees, type of certification, course work taken in preparation for the profession, and teachers’ own test scores. 

Performance as a variable is linked to the teachers’ experience, resulting from the ideas generated in the course of learning, training, acquired classroom management skills/expertise. Teachers’ experience has a significant effect on student performance in the sense that students taught by more experienced teachers achieve at a higher level, because their teachers have mastered the content and gained classroom management skills/expertise to deal with different types of classroom problem (Gibbson, 1997); therefore, academic achievement of students in Biology is dependent on the characteristics that a teacher portray. 

According to Mumare& Philip (1981), experience has a significant positive effect on the connection that exist between the quality of a teacher and the academic achievement of students in Biology cannot be over emphasized because they both work hand in glove in showcasing how quality education could be enshrined in an academic process and this could be inferred from the words of Strong (2007); that asserted a positive relationship between teachers’ verbal ability and students’ achievement. 

Parents are keen at seeing their children enroll and graduate from prestigious educational institutions as most compete to offer their best educational programs and be at the fore front of academic excellence. People who are directly involved in the students’ academic life are the teachers who provide help to these students. 

Classroom teachers are primarily responsible for student academic achievement as a school’s primary focus is on the academic preparation of students. 

1.2 Statement of the Problem 
The issue of declining academic achievement of students in Biology has generated much interest among stakeholders in the educational sector in Nigeria. The quality of education and performance of students depends on the teachers as reflected in the discharge of their duties. Overtime, students’ academic performance in both internal and external exams had been used to determine the effectiveness of teachers and teaching. According to Ogunsaju (2004), academic standards have fallen below societal expectations. Considering governments huge investment in public education, its output in terms of quality of students has been observed to be unequal with government expenditure. 

Despite the increase in educational attainment by teachers in trying to improve on their qualification and skills/expertise the academic achievement of students in Biology in senior secondary schools has not been encouraging. This is reflected in the falling standard of education in view of the performance of students in examinations like Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE), Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME), etc. 

There is a persistent decline in the academic performance of SSS students in spite of the huge government budgetary allocation on education. There is a prevalent rise in examination mal-practices, where parents, teachers and even stakeholders in the economy spend heavily on prepared solution and ‘assistance’ from teachers to make their students pass examinations without merit. 

This has led to a high degree of failure to breed students that are worth their certificates and is giving the country a serious cause for concern. 

Functional educational system most time depends on the adequacy of some indispensable behavioral traits of teachers, such as qualification, experience, and skills/expertise among others hence the need for further investigation. 

1.3 Objective of the Study 
The essence of this study is to investigate how certain characteristics and factors relate to the academic performance of senior secondary school students in Biology inOyo state, Nigeria. 

The specific objectives are: 

1. To determine if the qualification of teachers have an effect on the academic achievement of students in Biology. 

2. To find out if teaching experience is related to academic achievement of students in Biology. 

3. To relate parents’ level of education with students’ academic performance in Biology. 

4. To identify the relationship between teachers’ skill/expertise and academic performance. 

1.4 Research Questions 
1. Do teachers’ qualifications affect students’ academic performance? 

2. Does teacher’s years of experience affect academic achievement of students in Biology? 

3. Does parents’ level of education affect students’ academic performance in Biology? 

4. What is the relationship between teachers’ skill/expertise and academic performance? 

1.5 Research Hypotheses 
H01: There is no significant relationship between teachers’ qualification and students’ academic performance. 

H02: There is no significant difference in the academic achievement of students in Biology with educated parents. 

1.6 Significance of the Study 
This study will look intensively on the effect of teachers’ characteristics and parental factors on academic achievement of students in Biology. It will be beneficial to stakeholders in the educational sector such as teachers, parents, students, school management, and ministries of education, educational researchers, and the society at large. 

It will be used as a guide line for schools in recruiting teachers and also help already recruited teachers in improving their teaching methods. 

It will be beneficial to curriculum developers in the framing and designing of topics that will correct and improve the performance of senior secondary school students. Educational researchers will see it as an addition to the literature on teachers’ characteristics and parental factors and academic performance; giving them a concise and significant outlook of the topic. 

The recommendations will enhance academic performance. 

1.7 Scope of the Study 
The scope of the study is limited to only teachers’ characteristics and parental factors as a determinant of student’s academic performance. 

The study is carried out in the Ibadan North-East Local Government area only. The study is also limited to activities of Senior Secondary Schools and not Junior Secondary Schools or Primary Schools. 

The study will make use of both primary and secondary data. Questionnaires will be distributed and used to find out the correlation between teachers’ characteristics and parental factors and academic performance. 

Ibadan North-East Local Government area of Oyo State

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 55 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word   Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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