EFFECT OF ELECTORAL INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES ON EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE: A CASE OF INDEPENDENT ELECTORAL AND BOUNDARIES COMMISSION IN NAIROBI COUNTY, KENYA

ABSTRACT
A proper electoral system reflects the true voice of the people in a nation and thus, a better government which respect and uphold the ideals of constitutionalism. The advancement of information and communication technologies allow for a fully automated online computerized electoral process. In addition to overcoming commonly encountered election pitfalls, electoral vote counts are done in real time that by the end of elections day, the results are automatically out. (Njogu, 2014). Employees’ performance is key to organization goal delivery. Such performance can be enhanced using modern technology so that the employee improves on work efficiency, quality, timeliness and productivity. The main objective of this study was to analyze effect of electoral information communication technologies on employees’ performance, a case study of Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission in Nairobi County, Kenya. The study particularly analyzed effect of Biometric Voter Registration System (BVR), Electronic Voters Identification Device (EVID); Electronic Results Transmission (ERT) System and Electronic Voter Verification (EVV) System on IEBC permanent employees’ performance in Nairobi County. The study used descriptive survey research design. The target population of the study was the 203 permanent Independent Electoral and Boundary Commission employees working in Nairobi Region and the IEBC headquarter. The study used sampling formula recommended by Nassiuma (2000) to arrive at 98 of employees working in Headquarters and Nairobi Region leaving out other regions because the Headquarters is the custodian of electoral technologies and therefore have all the information of interest to the study. Nairobi region is the nearest region to the headquarters and therefore accessible to the technologies equally of interest to the research. Respondents were randomly picked to form the 98 sample. The researcher used close ended questionnaires based on Likert Scale as the main mode of data collection. The data analyzed through the use of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The relationship between each of the elements of electoral technologies and employees performance was tested using a Pearson’s Correlation. The combined effect of all the technologies and employees performance was tested with the Regression Model. The study was important since Kenyans expressed complaints from the public about the electoral technology, the study therefore analyzed whether the technologies were important in enhancing employees’ performance. The study established that BVR, EVID and EVV had a positive effect on employees’ performance whereas ERT had no effect. the study recommends that although there is a debate on the use of electoral technology in results delivery as a national concern, with one side of the debate observing that technology makes electoral process complex and therefore not necessary and the other side observing that electoral technology leaves behind auditable foot print of electoral process and therefore must be enhanced the parliament should legislate laws that entrenches electoral ICT technologies in the Election Acts to give way for policies adjustment at IEBC level and strategies which should make the implementation of such technologies easy for the benefit of staff performance. Such policies and strategies should also embrace and enhance the use of other technologies; Biometric Voter Registration (BVR), Electronic Results Transmission (ERT) and Electronic Voter Verification (EVV) Systems that the study found to have a negative effect on employees performance.

CHAPTER ONE 
INTRODUCTION 
Background 
Election is the process that gives the citizens the rights to select candidates to represent them in a democratic pattern. Election deals with the democracy and freewill of citizens, for this reason voting process is considered to be very critical and sensitive process, therefore election implementation must serve many requirements in order to deliver a trustworthy election. These requirements can be defined as user conventions requirements and delivery of secure voting process requirements (Taha, 2011). 

A proper electoral system reflects the true voice of the people in a nation and thus, a better government which respect and uphold the ideals of constitutionalism. The advancement of information and telecommunications technologies allow for a fully automated online computerized election process. In addition to overcoming commonly encountered election pitfalls, electoral vote counts are done in real time that by the end of elections day, the results are automatically out. The election process can be easily enhanced with various features based on the demand and requirements of different countries around the world (Njogu, 2014). 

The introduction of electronic voting has been the biggest change in electoral process. E-Voting may soon become a global reality or a global nightmare. Besides reliable e- Voting technologies, there is a dire need for international standards to govern the technology, the software reliability and accuracy, the processes and algorithms deployed within the technology, and the verification of all hardware, software and protocols involved. Such standards will eventually allow elections to proceed in any part of the world without the need for monitoring bodies (Njogu, 2014). The design of a good voting system, whether electronic or using traditional paper ballots or mechanical devices must satisfy a number of sometimes competing criteria including a high degree of security and accuracy, eligibility and authentication, integrity, verifiability and auditability, reliability, flexibility, performance and scalability. More importantly, there is a real need for a good simulation model which can guide the deployment of e-Voting resources such that the election process can proceed with minimal faults and performance issues. 

Due to the fast development of network technology the world is going toward the use and implementation of the e-technology in every aspect of our life including e- governments. Evoting becomes one of these technologies. E-voting refers to the use of hardware and software to establish an electronic system, useful in voting process, by generating an electronic ballot that replaces the paper ballot. E-voting was introduced by e-governments especially in Europe in order to serve voting convention by providing remote system so the voter can cast his/her vote whenever and wherever he/she can. These systems will increase voter’s participation and will speed up the votes counting Due to the fast development of network technology the world is going toward the use and implementation of the e-technology in every aspect of our life including e-governments. Evoting becomes one of these technologies 

The introduction of a new voting technology to an existing electoral process requires more than taking the paper-based process and making it e-enabled. Developers must also change the whole back-office process and reorganize the whole business process. As in e-government, supporting the complexity of e-voting requires an expansion of thinking. Technological progress and developments in the field of e-voting are increasing over time, and so are abilities of application of this technology. However, the multidisciplinary nature of elections presents a natural challenge. This section therefore presents a conceptual model that helps identify the areas that influence and are affected by the application of ICT in elections. 

Motivating factor behind electoral technologies discussions was to enable secret voting. Later, those in charge of determining the process of elections – election administrators – tried to devise ways to conduct elections in the best way available to them. Therefore, their aim has been to limit the number of unintentionally spoilt ballots due to human error (The Spectator 1837a; Churov 2010), to organize elections more effectively (and combating fraud, see Saltman 2006), and to count the votes quicker and more accurately (Arnold 1999). They were supported by inventors who proposed technological advancements during phases of electoral reform (Jones and Hall 2006) and were interested in selling their patents and machines. 

Global, Regional and Local use of Electoral Technologies 
Globally, electronic voting and counting technologies are increasingly being used around the world with India and Brazil taking the centre stage. Belgium and the Philippines also use electronic voting and counting technologies for their national elections. Countries such as Estonia, Norway, Pakistan, and United States are at various stages of piloting partially using electronic voting and counting technologies, including the use of internet voting. Brazil and India have successfully implemented e-voting to address various challenges associated with the manual paper based electoral process (Achieng and Ruhode, 2013). 

Even though e-voting has been around for some time in the developed countries, its adoption diffusion rate has been somehow slow with countries like Germany abandoning the project after implementation. The reasons for the rejection were the fear of the risk of electronic errors and the potential for abuse (EDRI, 2009). The German court ruled that voters should be able to verify how votes are recorded without having detailed computer knowledge; something not possible with Direct Recording Electronic (DRE) voting machines which were being used at that time. A case worth mentioning is that of Florida in the United States of America, where it was reported that computer malfunctions locked up the screens of some electronic voting machines on Election Day during the 2000 elections. Moreover, some irregularities and rigging with the direct counting system of the voting machines in Ohio in the 2004 elections subsequently gave more votes to one candidate in favour of the other whilst some votes were not counted at all (Achieng and Ruhode, 2013). 

The Philippines adopted an electronic counting solution to deal with issues related to fraud during the counting process. Factors that argue for or against the use of electronic voting or counting technologies in a particular country are specific to that country and will have many different sources – legal, cultural, political, logistical, environmental, etc.Technological developments in South Africa have opened the possibility of e-voting technologies and this clearly provides some opportunities and challenges. Svensson and Leenes (2003) argue that on the one hand, the electronic voting technology may help make voting more cost effective and more convenient for the voters and may even increase voter turnout. However, on the other hand, e-voting may introduce new risks and affect the electoral values such as secrecy of the vote and placing of voting as an observable institution in modern democracies (Achieng and Ruhode, 2013). 

In Africa, countries like Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa, Namibia have in the past used electronic voting systems and are now exploring the possibilities of E- voting as an improvement on their electoral systems. In simple terms, Electronic Voting (E-voting) refers to any process whereby citizens can cast their votes by electronic means. For the purpose of this thesis, we will limit this definition to electronic voting with the use of machines and not over the internet. E-voting accelerates the counting of results, reduces cost in the long term, provides easier election participation especially for those living abroad and also leads to higher reliability of results (Achieng and Ruhode, 2013). 

In an electronic voter registration pilot program for Kenya’s 2013 General Election, IEBC successfully registered 1.5 million Kenyans in 18 of 210 constituencies. Fingerprint and facial biometrics for voter identification were used to ensure a clean voter list. The challenges associated with electronic voter registration technology came as a result of second tendering which arose from the misunderstandings and squabbles within IEBC during the procurement stage (Rono, 2013). 

As part of the exercise, a pilot project in selected constituencies using biometric voter identification was also conducted to avoid ballot stuffing. Kenya, ICTs is not left out, the Electoral Commission of Kenya (ECK) recorded increased participation by registering the highest number of voters in the elections with an informed mind (Kenya: ICT Polls, 2007). 

Employees Performance 
Organizational performance is a sign of the capacity of a company to efficiently achieve independent goals (Venkatraman & Ramanujam, 1986). One of the elements towards this is the employees’ performance through the level of their productivity. Several researches have been introducing various methods to evaluate organisational performance (Wong & Wong, 2007; Prajogo, 2007). This includes the quality, quantity, knowledge or creativity of individual towards the accomplished works that are in accordance with the responsibility during a specified period- in other words, the assessment systems must have some standard parameters that can be relied upon. 

The study adopts Arinanye (2015) measurement of employees performance that include; efficiency, quality, timeliness and productivity. Arinanye (2015) found out that organizational culture motivates employees; promotes good performance; improves on employee/supervisor relations; demonstrates fair and equal treatment; and improve on teamwork; efficiency and effectiveness. Smooth communication within the College makes employees identify with it and also feel a vital part of it, hence improving on the way conflicts are handled within the communication brought about by improper communication channels. 

Evolution of Electoral Process in Kenya 
The electoral process in Kenya has evolved over time. The first general elections at Independence in 1963 were held under a multi-party system. At the same time, the Kenya Independence Order-in-Council created the first Electoral Commission with the Speaker of the Senate as Chairman. Other members included the Speaker of the House of Representatives as the Vice Chairman and nine others appointed by the Governor General. 

A Constitutional Amendment of 1966 (The Turn-Coat Rule), required that a Member of Parliament seeks re-election at the end of the session on defection. This development made Kenya a de facto one-party state; and in 1982, another Constitutional Amendment made Kenya a de jure one-party state. 

Following the abolition of the two-tier parliamentary system in 1966, elections were managed by the Supervisor of Elections from the Attorney General’s Chambers. During this period, Civil servants became increasingly involved in the management of elections. The Provincial Administration assumed some key roles with District Commissioners and other civil servants being designated as Returning Officers during elections. 

The introduction of the queue-voting system (mlolongo) in 1988 further weakened the electoral process by removing secret balloting-a hallmark of any credible electoral system. This initially touted as easy and transparent method of affirming the will of the people ignored the cardinal principle of secrecy and exposed the electoral process to flagrant abuse. 

In 1991 after the repeal of section 2 (A) of the Constitution, Kenya reverted to a multiparty state and the Electoral Commission of Kenya (ECK) was established. However, the process of appointing Commissioners to the ECK remained contentious with political parties questioning its impartiality and independence. It was subsequently agreed by the Inter Party Parliamentary Group (IPPG) that political parties recommend names of persons to serve on the ECK as Commissioners, prior to their appointment by the President. This arrangement was however, not anchored in the Constitution and was, therefore, still susceptible to manipulation. 

Following the disputed results of the Presidential elections in 2007 and the resultant post-election violence, a National Accord Implementation Committee (NAIC) was established. The NAIC made far reaching recommendations among them, a review of the electoral process. This led to the establishment of the Independent Review Commission (IREC), popularly known as the Kriegler Commission to undertake the exercise. 

The IREC recommended a new or transformed ECK with a lean policy- making structure and a professional secretariat. IREC also recommended a review of the entire constitutional and legal framework in line with the political and legal aspirations of Kenyans. Following these recommendations, Parliament in 2008, amended Section 41 of the Constitution thereby disbanding ECK. Section 41created the Interim Independent Electoral Commission (IIEC), while Section 41B created the Interim Independent Boundaries Review Commission (IIBRC), to review electoral boundaries. 

The Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission (IEBC) was established under the Constitution of Kenya Article 88 and Article 248. The Commission is responsible for conducting or supervising referenda and elections to any elective body or office established by the Constitution, and any other elections as prescribed by an Act of Parliament. IEBC takes over from the Interim Independent Electoral Commission (IIEC) and the Interim Independent Boundaries Review Commission (IBRC).

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Item Type: Kenyan Material  |  Attribute: 76 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
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