The main purpose of the study was to assess the factors affecting adoption of E-learning in public secondary schools in Makadara sub-county, Nairobi County. The specific objectives of the study were to establish the influence of ICT infrastructure and E- learning curricula and design on the adoption of E-learning in public schools in Makadara sub-county, Nairobi County. It was also aimed at examining the effect of teacher’s readiness and teachers’ ICT skills on the adoption of E-learning in public schools in Makadara sub-county, Nairobi County. The study adopted a survey research design. The study targeted all the head teachers, teachers and deputy head teachers of all public secondary schools in Makadara Sub-county (195 respondents) but sampled 98 of them for this study. Data collected from primary sources was analyzed with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 22.0). Correlation analysis, Regression analysis as well as descriptive statistics were used to analyze the study variables. The research study established that most schools have low investment in ICT infrastructure due to high costs of computer hardware, software and related accessories. The adoption of E-learning implementations has resulted in the need for development of new skills and competencies among teachers as most teachers who have been teaching in traditional manners are not technologically literate and sometimes may even resist because of the worry about losing their jobs if E-learning is implemented, because of their inadequate skills. The factors affecting the adoption of E-learning significantly influenced the adoption of E-learning and external factors such as the government policies, financial policies and human development hence the hypotheses were rejected.

Background of the study 
E-learning entails the provision of the course materials and teaching through web technologies. This could be a stand-alone web-based course or a combination with the traditional face-to-face mode of teaching. Stand-alone web-based course can be defined as that which "might include supplemental material but can be completed entirely without face-to-face interaction with instructor” (Aduke, 2008, p.290-295). Instead of the traditional physical classrooms E-learning offers “virtual classrooms as they are able to group students doing a particular online course from different physical locations but through the web technologies” (Adam, 2003, p.195). E-learning offers flexible access to content and resource via networked information and communication technologies at a place and time convenient to the learner in what has come to be called distributed learning (Naidu, 2006). 

In USA over three million students are enrolling in web-based courses, with estimates suggesting that nearly 20 percent of courses in the USA are currently offered at a distance (Ruth et al., 2007). Major corporations and the military have infused their traditional training programs with E-learning initiatives, resulting in millions of dollars in annual cost savings. Given the trend toward E-learning delivery methods, it has become more critical to understand the factors which impact the effectiveness of these emerging delivery methods. E-learning can be defined as “training or educational initiatives which provide learning material in online repositories, where course interaction and communication and course delivery are technology mediated” (Johnson, Hornik, & Salas 2008, p. 357). 

A recent study conducted by the Global Information Technology (2005) used the Networked Readiness Index, covering a total of 115 economies in 2005-2006, to measure the degree of preparation of a nation or community to participate in and benefit from ICT developments. Out of the 115 countries surveyed United States of America topped the list, followed by Singapore, Denmark, Iceland, Finland, Canada, Taiwan, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom etc. Similarly, a study by Nigerian Information Technology Professionals in America in 2002 indicated that given current ICT penetration it may take some African countries 50 years to catch up with America on the aspect of PC count per household (Yusuf, 2006). The domain of distance education has not been unaffected by the penetrating influence of information and communication technology. Unquestionably, ICTs have impacted the quality and quantity of teaching, learning, and research in distance education. Therefore, ICT provides opportunities for distance education students and academic and non-academic staff to communicate with one another more effectively during formal and informal teaching and learning (Yusuf, 2005). 

The Global Information Technology (2005) established that the pedagogical integration of ICT had a positive impact on teaching and learning. Both students and teachers reported that they used computers to access knowledge. In 60% of the institutions, off line resources such as Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia was used, there was also restricted access to information from online resources in schools that had connectivity. Twenty percent of the institutions were using the cyber-school software to teach science subjects. In cases where the school had no connectivity students reported that they accessed the internet from cyber caf├ęs during school holidays. 

Global Information Technology (2005) study further established that teachers used ICTs for pedagogical purposes. Indeed, more than fifty percent (50%) of the courses in the institutions under study were taught using ICTs. Programmes such Microsoft excel were used for academic data analysis, 20% of the institutions used NetCen School Solution to prepare the school time tables. Some teachers reported the use of computers to present work in class using PowerPoint presentations, while 20% the institutions used smart board technology in teaching. Teachers reported use of Ms Word for their day to day and routine work such as making of lesson plans and schemes of work. Students reported that ICTs made learning more interesting and fun, enhanced learning and made them produce better results especially in practical subjects and science congress competitions. They also used computers to write and present assignments. The students further reported that learning using ICTs enhanced retention. 

Various studies have discussed some benefits of e- Learning which is first and foremost capable of reducing the challenge of capacity, equity and access due to the opportunity it provides to “educate and train anyone, anytime, and from anywhere” ; breaks the barriers of times and space; hence making it possible to enroll a large number of learners without restrictions. As explained by (Schrum & Ohler 2005, p.60-83) e- learning significantly challenges the standard onsite educational culture; Instructions delivered are independent of time, location, pace and space; hence learners can still face other commitments and learn at their own pace; the increase in enrolment rates in a distance education system lowers the unit cost per learner; permits the achievement of individual educational objectives at affordable costs, without affecting the normal schedule of learners (Olakulehin, 2008). Nafukho (2007) argued that current developments in technology have an extraordinary potential for transforming education to meet the growing need for customized, on-demand learning. 

Statement of the Problem 
One of the key components of the Government’s approach to achieving the stated goal of quality basic education is through provision of secondary education using Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The Sessional Paper No. 1 of 2005, KESSP and Vision 2030 documents underscores the importance of ICT in education in laying a firm base for skills development and innovation for enabling the country to attain a competitive edge (MoE, 2009). Although, in Kenya, ICT has penetrated many sectors including banking, transportation, communications, and medical services, the Kenyan educational system still seems to lag behind (infoDev; 2011). Whereas there are a number of researches done on the introduction, use and the potential impact of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on learning especially in the context of the developed countries, there is no evidence of studies done on factors affecting adoption of E-learning in public secondary schools in Kenya. Therefore this study sought to fill this gap and examine the factors affecting adoption of E-learning in public secondary schools in Makadara Sub-county, Nairobi County.

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Item Type: Kenyan Topic  |  Size: 80 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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