This study was designed to determine the perceived impact of mass media as indices of development and promotion of Nigeria University games in Nigeria using The Sun Newspaper as a case study. The purposive and random sampling techniques were dopted in selecting one hundred and fifty (150) respondents made up of sports journalists and stakeholders in the sports industry, descriptive research design with a self-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The chi-square (χ2) was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 alpha levels. The analysis revealed that the two variables were indices of sports development.

1.1 Background to the Study 
It is an undeniable fact that sports is the dependable tool for development, health and peace of a nation (Venkateswarlu, 2006a). The Federal Government of Nigeria realises these potentials of sports to contribute to the national development, when it emphasis the need to promote sports in all sectors. In its – strategic plan for the development of the education sector –(2011 – 2015), government directed that sport participation should be encouraged at all levels of education through the provision of facilities, equipment and personnel for the promotion of health, development of skills, and socio – emotional wellbeing of all the age brackets in our educational institutions (Federal Ministry of Education, 2012). In fact, the United Nations general assembly adopted resolution 58/5 titled ―sports as means to promote education, health, development and peace. Furthermore, it proclaimed year 2005 as the International Year of Sports and Physical Education and urged all nations of the world to take a deliberate steps towards ensuring that sport is given a befitting place in their developmental programmes as a panacea for development (United Nations (UN), 2003; 2006). 

In view of the established benefits of sports, Educational Institutions in Nigeria in adherence to the directives of the Federal Government have been encouraging students‘ participations in different sporting activities through provision of facilities, equipment training personnel and opportunities of participation in various sporting competitions such as intra-mural and extra-mural schools sports as well as local, national and international competitions. The main objectives of such participation are to promote health, fitness and performance of students (Ladani 2008; Venkateswarlu, 2006a). This has been especially evident in tertiary institutions in Nigeria, in which different types of intra-mural and extramural competitions are organised. 

In order to understand and appreciate such Programmes, it is necessary to understand the concept of sport. The word ―sport is a broad term and as well flexible such that, it includes a variety of sporting activities that have received support from a wide range of organisations involved in sports development. In addition, sports include non-formal, involuntary and leisure time play activities. It is therefore, the opinion of this researcher that it is much easier to hold a more fluid and non-dogmatic view on what do or do not constitute sports, especially in view of the ever-changing scenario in the world of sports and recreation. social development of the participants. This includes play, leisure and recreation activities, casual and competitive sports, and indigenous sports and games. 

Sport for development According to Venkateswarlu (2006) the above concept is in line with the view of the United Nations Inter-Agency Task Force (2003), that sports includes all forms of physical activities that contributes to the psychological, physical and not involves the utilisation of the power of sport to build on the values of development, like equity, inclusion and sustainability, promotion of development of children, social inclusion, cohesion and contribution to health, education and economic development. It can be used to open new awareness for forming partnership than very essential to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (UN Inter-Agency Task Force Report, 2003; Venkateswarlu, 2006). 

Rodger (2002) argued that sports have four essential elements. Physical activity is undertaken for a recreation (that is non-obligated) purpose and this takes place within a framework of organized competition that is regulated in an institutional setting. However, despite the practical context, the boundaries between activities remain blurred. For example, many sports are undertaken as a professional activity, which implies that they are not recreational. Activities other than team sports, such as swimming and cycling may take place under similar competitive and non-institutional environment. In this regard, they could be viewed as ―recreation‖ sports, in so much as formal rules of competition are not followed. Finally, leisure activities may embrace reading, watching the television, visiting or indeed spectatorship at professional sports encounters. They are neither competitive, rule bound, nor physical activities. Walking and gardening are both physical activities, often undertaken for recreational purposes. Walking as illustrated below is often included in sports participation surveys by government and other agencies, but gardening is not sport. For example, Sport England (a sport organisation) has recently classified darts as sport, and that chess is not. However, the International Olympic Committee recognises that chess is a sport. In this regard, its governing body must ensure that its statues, practice and activities conform to the Olympic Charter. It is clear that in practice sports do not have a predetermined definition. It requires that one should always bear in mind the context in which the term ―sports‖, ―recreation‖, ―leisure‖ and physical activity are used. However, for the purpose of this research, the definition of sport by Paul (2009) and his friends, which define sport as ―all forms of physical activities which, through causal or organic participation, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mental well-being, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competition‖, will be adopted as the operational definition of sports. This definition will support and encourage mass sport participation more than a technically rigid definition. 

The spread and development of Western sports in Nigeria got a boost through the missionaries. On arrival, the missionaries established schools all over the country, particularly in the southern parts of the country. As these schools were established, British sports were also introduced to these schools. Competitive track and field sports were introduced into primary schools in Nigeria through the Empire day celebration usually held every year on May 24th to commemorate the birth of Queen Victoria. Ladani further stressed that the establishment of more secondary schools and Teachers‘ Training Colleges contributed tremendously to the spread and development of modern sports in Nigeria. Through the activities of these educational institutions, Nigerians began to see the values and joy of taking part in sports and their increase participation met with greater support by both the colonial administration and Nigeria citizens. The history of the development and spread of modern sports cannot be complete without a tribute to the role of educational institutions, particularly at the tertiary levels (Ladani, 2008). 

Kabido (2001) noted that universities have been centres of intellectual pursuit and scholarship and university authorities have opposed strongly to anything that might detract them from this purpose. This single-minded academic tradition has persisted inviolate to the present day in most nations of the world. Nevertheless, students have not always shared the faculties‘ devotion to this exclusive philosophy of scholarship. Even during medieval times, university students sporadically played games and sports in defiance of restrictions and under threat of punishment. Around 1800, students at University in England and the United States began to take up sports and games more persistently though in an informal manner. During this period, devotees of a sport would form a club or association, and it was this development, which was a necessary forerunner to the more organized inter-university competition, which began with a Cricket meet in 1827, between Oxford and Cambridge. Similar development also took place in American Colleges. In 1852, the Rowing club from Harvard and Yale met in the first inter-collegiate match to be held in the United States. Until 1880s, all of these competitions were conducted entirely by students themselves who raised the money, scheduled the games, and provided their own coaching, as was the case in England (Kabido, 2001). 

There is no doubt that Nigeria has witnessed tremendous development in the area of sports most especially when compared to other countries in Africa. Sports have permeated the Nigerian society through the efforts, activities and commitments of Nigerian sports journalists. 

This study, therefore, was set to determine the perceived impact of mass media as indices for development and promotion of Nigeria University games in Nigeria. 

1.2 Statement of the Problem 
The persistent attitude of students towards sports participation in Europe and the United States has been responsible for the development and promotion of Nigeria University gamess that led to good organisation and participation in games and sports among institutions of higher learning in Europe and the United States between the sixteen and eighteenth centuries. This attitude of European and American students toward sports has greatly influenced the general public participation in sports in the United States and European countries (Bitrus, 2005). It is amusing that the university authorities who vehemently opposed anything to do with students participation in sports in the early centuries are now in the fore front encouraging university and college students to participate actively in sports. Today, Students of tertiary institutions in Europe, the United States and other parts of the world are known to have contributed significantly to the development and promotion of Nigeria University gamess in their respective countries with respect to sports participation and elitist sport. This development was a credit to the students for their roles in creation of sports clubs that did not only benefit the students but the public at large. In addition, students in Britain created awareness for participation in sports as it was attested that wherever a British graduate went, he went with his sports (Ahmed 1992; Bitrus, 2005). This is true because it was reported that students who graduated from British institutions took sports to their communities through the establishment of sports clubs. The spread of western sports to Nigeria also came through some British graduates who were sent to serve the colonial administration or the missionaries (Ladani, 2008). 

Also in the United States students organised and participated actively in sporting activities, this led to greater awareness and enthusiasm in sport participation among Americans. With the colonisation of most African States, schools were established all over these states. Western sports immediately spread to these schools and continued until date. 

The participation of Nigeria institutions in sporting activities has a long history. According to Ladani (2008) it began with Empire day celebration to commemorate the birth of Queen Victoria of England and grew into schools sports where athletic, football and netball competitions were organised for primary, secondary schools and Teacher Training Colleges. With the establishment of a University College in Ibadan in 1948 and other tertiary institutions later, sports became a very serious social activity that dominated the leisure of students in these tertiary institutions (Fafunwa, 1975; Bitrus, 2005). 

According to Omoruan (1996; Bitrus 2005) the former National Union of Nigeria Students in the late fifties comprising of Universities, the Polytechnics, Colleges of Education and the Advanced Teachers‘ Colleges gave impetus to their joint sporting activities. However, with the later increase in the number of these institutions and number of students coupled with financial and administrative constraints, it soon became necessary that each should go its own way. As a result, there emerged the Nigeria University Games Association (NUGA), the Nigeria Polytechnic Games Association (NIPOGA) and Nigeria Colleges of Education Games Association (NATCEGA). The sporting activities of Nigeria students in the tertiary institutions through these Sports Associations and similar bodies at continental and global level have no doubt projected the sporting might of these students beyond the shores of Nigeria. This situation is believed to have created awareness and enthusiasm for sports participation among Nigerians as was the case with Australia. Apart from the fact that these tertiary institutional sports created an opportunity for interaction, love and exchange of ideas among Nigerian students in the tertiary institutions, it also serves as an avenue for the development of elite sports men and women who aspired for excellence in sports performance. In addition, it also serves as a pool from which the nation‘s national and international athletes and administrators are drawn. Gouws (1997) stated that institutional sports played a dominant role in the development and promotion of Nigeria University gamess in Nigeria, and that through these institutional sports, athletes for national and international competitions were discovered. On the other hand, students of tertiary institutions have played an important role in the development and promotion of Nigeria University gamess in Nigeria through their organisations of sports programmes among the various campuses. For instance, NUGA, NIPOGA and NATCEGA, are the products of the Association of Nigeria Students. 

Despite these achievements by the Nigeria tertiary institutions in sports it thus appears that the participation of the generality of Nigerians in sports is not encouraging and the development of elite athletes in sports is equally not growing as expected. This is occasioned by the fact that athletes already discovered are being used repeatedly. This seems to be evidenced that the tertiary institutions in Nigeria are no longer influencing sports participation and development of elite athletes in Nigeria sporting culture as it ought to be. This scenario prompted the researcher to undertake a study on the influence of Nigeria tertiary institutions in the development and promotion of Nigeria University gamess participation and elitism in Nigeria sporting culture. 

1.3 Purpose of the Study 
The purpose of this project work is to examine the role of the Nigeria mass media in the development and promotion of Nigeria University games.The study will examine the problems faced by the mass media in the country and will also look into the relationship of mass media and the sport agencies in the country. 

1.4 Research Questions 
The study attempted to provide answers to the following questions: 

1. To what extent do sport journalism create awareness of NUGA to the general public? 
2. To what extent will the awareness of sport promote the development and promotion of Nigeria University games in Nigeria? 
3. To what extent do activities of sport journalist contribute to the development and promotion of Nigeria University games? 
4. Of what role do the mass media plays in the development and promotion of Nigeria University games in Nigeria? 

1.5 Scope of the Study 
The scope of this study covers, evolution of news reporting in the Nigeria using The Sun newspaper as a basis for the research.However, the finding of the project work can be well applicable to all media and sport industry. 

1.6 Significant of the Study 
The importance of this study was to determine the perceived impact of Mass media in development and promotion of Nigeria University games in Nigeria, using The Sun Newspaper as a Case Study. 

It will enable the sport stakeholders to be well aware of the role that newspaper can play in development of the sport industry thereby creating interest in them to engage in co-invest with the mass media. 

It also educates the sport fans, student, worker and the general public about the role of the mass media in the effective development and promotion of Nigeria University games. 

1.7 Limitation of the Study 
The limitation involved in this work includes the wide nature and time constraint of the study, which resulted in narrowing down the case study to The Sun Newspaper. 

The following are the limitation that hinders the study of this research work; 

1. Financial Constraint: There are not enough funds to fuel the study of this research work. The researcher has access to a very little source of fund. 
2. Time Constraints: Due to the limited time available to carry out this research work, it is not possible to carry out the research extensively as anticipated by the researcher. 

1. Journalist: A journalist collects and disseminates information about current events, people, trends, and issues. His or her work is acknowledged as journalism. 

2. Reporters: Reporters are one type of journalist; they create reports as a profession for broadcast or publication in mass media such as newspapers, television, radio, magazines, documentary film, and the Internet. Reporters find sources for their work, their reports can be either spoken or written, and they are often expected to report in the most objective and unbiased way to serve the public good. A columnist is a journalist who writes pieces that appear regularly in newspapers or magazines. 

3. Mass Media: Mass media refers collectively to all media technologies, including the Internet, television, newspapers, and radio, which are used for mass communications, and to the organizations which control these technologies. 

4. A Massing Press: A massing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a mass medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink. Typically used for texts, the invention and spread of the massing press are widely regarded as the most influential events in the second millennium AD,[1] revolutionizing the way people conceive and describe the world they live in, and ushering in the period of modernity. 

5. Community The term community has two distinct meanings: 1) A group of interacting people, living in some proximity (i.e., in space, time, or relationship). Community usually refers to a social unit larger than a household that shares common values and has social cohesion. The term can also refer to the national community or international community, and, 2, a community is a group of interacting living organisms sharing a populated environment.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 49 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word   Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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