This study sought to examine the effect of teacher characteristics on ICT integration in public secondary schools in Nakuru Town Sub-county, Kenya. The objectives of the study were: To establish the effect of teacher educational beliefs on ICT integration; to establish the effect of self-efficacy on ICT integration; to establish the effect of attitude on ICT integration; to establish the effect of motivation on ICT integration; and to establish the overall effect of teacher characteristics on ICT integration. Primary data for this study was collected using structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was self-administered. The data was analyzed quantitatively. Biographic data on the respondents was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as percentages. The relationship between teacher characteristics and ICT integration was tested statistically using Pearson Moments Correlation. Relationships between teacher characteristics and ICT integration in public secondary schools was determined at the alpha level of p<0.05. Inferential statistics was used. To describe the various elements of teacher characteristics on overall ICT integration, descriptive analysis (percentages) was done. The data was analyzed with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) computer program (version 20.0). Data was presented using tables. Purposive sampling design was used in the study where one Head teacher, one Head of ICT Department and one ICT teacher were purposively sampled from each of the 22 public secondary schools yielding a sample size of 66 teachers. The study is beneficial to policy makers when developing teacher programs; it also helps teachers to see that intervention programs can influence their instructional behaviours. The study also provides evidence to researchers that teacher beliefs can be challenged. The study thus recommends that policymakers should incorporate the actual use of ICT when developing teacher programs. Considering the influence of the teacher characteristics on classroom use of ICT, professional teacher development should be aware of the direct impact of these variables, especially the role of teacher ICT motivation.

Background to the Study 
At the start of the 1980s, developed countries made it compulsory for ICT to be integrated into their education system. This was not the case in developing nations such as Kenya, where ICT integration in education is considerably more recent, small- scale and experimental (Mwololo, 2005). Also, the limited and uncoordinated approach to imparting appropriate ICT skills and competencies to teachers remains a major barrier to the integration of ICT in education in Africa and Kenya in particular. 

The Government of Kenya has acknowledged that purchasing and placing computers in a classroom is not true technology integration. Hence, the National ICT Strategy for Education and Training June 2006 Policy document emphasizes that real integration happens when technology is effectively applied to a curriculum and students’ learning. The policy stresses integrating ICT in teaching the curriculum at all levels of education (Ministry of Education Policy Document, 2006). The policy envisages that through the effective use of technology in the schooling process, students will be able to use technology in their studies. It also acknowledges that it is the classroom teacher who will be instrumental in achieving all this integration of technology. Ertmer (2005) also wrote that the key individual in helping students develop those capabilities is the classroom teacher. 

Countries that have harnessed the potential of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have attained significant social and economic development. They are also rapidly transforming into information and knowledge-based economies. In Kenya, the legal framework for ICT integration is mostly embedded in the Information and Communications Act (Cap 411a) of 1998 that provides for the establishment of the Communications Commission of Kenya (now Communications Authority of Kenya), to facilitate te development of the ICT sector and electronic commerce. Various policy and legal frameworks of ICT integration in education have been put in place. Teachers are the people at the centre of the implementation of these new technologies but their abilities to respond to this change and innovation that is an essential factor for success has not been fully studied and documented hence the need for this research. Understanding how teachers’ characteristics affect ICT integration will enable systems to be designed in such a way that the system enhances the work of the teacher who is the user of the system. 

National Policy Framework for ICT Integration 
The National policy framework for ICT integration focuses on Kenya Vision 2030; the National ICT policy; and the E-government strategy. The social pillar of Vision 2030 mandates the Ministry of Education to provide a quality education that produces a highly skilled human capital with requisite ICT skills to competitively participate in knowledge-based economy. ICT is identified as the catalyst to drive the socio- economic transformation of Kenya into a middle-income country. The National ICT Policy, 2006 (Republic of Kenya, 2006) outlines its goals as supporting ICT development, investment, and application; ensuring affordability and access to ICT nationally; supporting research development in ICT and developing an institutional framework for policy formulation and review. One of its objectives is to encourage the use of IT in schools, universities, colleges and other educational institutions in the country so as to improve the quality of teaching and learning. The realization of this policy objective heavily depends on the availability and adequacy of skilled human resource capacity. The Government supports the creation of the necessary capacity by integrating IT subjects in the curriculum at all levels of education; establishing educational networks for sharing educational resources and promoting e-learning at all levels; establishing the establishment of ICT Centres of Excellence and enhancing capacity for research and development in IT. When making this policy, the ministry did not try to understand teachers who are the people directly affected by it and what factors assist and/or hinder the efficient process of ICT integration in schools. Since it is the teachers who must implement this ICT integration in schools, it is their understanding and experience of the situation that are crucial if integration is going to be successful. This motivated our current research. 

Education Policy Framework for ICT Integration 
The Sessional Paper No. 14 of 2012 (Republic of Kenya, 2012) is the current policy framework through which the Ministry of Education affirms commitment to enhancing access to education, promote equity and increase transition rates in its quest for provision of quality education. The policy underscores the ministry’s commitment to competency-based teaching and learning that promotes acquisition of the 21st century skills and attitudes such as critical thinking, creativity, communication, collaboration, and innovation that prepares learners to competitively participate in a knowledge-based economy. Integration of ICT across all levels of subjects and education is envisaged to enhance 21st-century learning skills among others. The Sessional Paper No. 1 of 2005 (Republic of Kenya, 2005) emphasized that ICT played a key role in promoting the economic development of a country. It noted that ICT could be used in education, training, and research as well as in the management of the education sector and that the successful implementation of ICT would require highly skilled human resources. The objectives were to support ICT teacher development, research and development of ICT in education. To implement the ICT policies in this paper, the strategy to reform the curriculum to facilitate use of ICT integration was formulated. Teachers who are the implementers of this policy will assess how implementation will impact on them rather than how it might impact on student growth. Therefore, for this process to be meaningful, its effectiveness mut be proven in terms of the personal and professional growth of all involved. Hence the need for this research study. 

The Education Strategic Plan 
The strategic plan of the Ministry of Education Science and Technology (MOEST) considers and proposes that ICT can contribute substantially towards the realization of these objectives. In addition, ICT has considerable potential to support implementation of Free Primary Education (FPE) and to address emerging challenges such as; overcrowded classrooms, high Pupil Teacher Ratios (PTRs), shortage of teachers on certain subjects or areas, and relatively high cost of learning and teaching materials. The areas of priority under this education plan include; training, research and development and integration of ICTs in education. The role of the classroom teacher is the crucial factor in the full development and use of technology is schools. Transforming this classroom technology from hardware, software, and connection into tools for teaching and learning depends on knowledgeable and enthusiastic teachers who are motivated and prepared to put technology to work on behalf of their students. Hence the need for this research to establish the relationship between motivation and ICT integration in schools. 

Reforms related to ICT integration in the education sector 
The Government of Kenya has carried out various reforms related to ICT integration in the education sector. These include; development of an ICT integration model which emphasizes four key pillars critical to effective implementation of ICT initiatives, creation of specialized units – ICT for Education (ICT4E), national ICT innovation and integration centre (NI3C), ICT unit and ICT integration team. The ICT4E unit is mandated to spearhead the pedagogical use of ICTs. The NI3C center is mandated to carry out the testing of technical solutions submitted for consideration by firms to establish their appropriateness and use in curriculum delivery. The ICT integration team’s role is – coordination and harmonization of all ICT initiatives in the sector. The ICT unit handles ICT technical support and advice, technical support and systems for EMIS and make reports to the Principal Secretary on ICT matters. 

Education initiatives related to ICT integration 
Two major ICT initiatives have been made in the education sector, namely the Economic Stimulus Program (ESP) ICT initiative (Republic of Kenya, 2013) and the ICT integration/Laptop project (Republic of Kenya, 2013). The objective of the ESP ICT integration program is to jumpstart ICT integration in education in line with Kenya Vision 2030 so as to produce a highly skilled human resource to transform Kenya into a middle income, knowledge-based economy. The ICT integration/Laptop program has its origin in President Uhuru Kenyatta’s campaign pledge to provide laptop computers for every standard one pupil in Kenya government schools. This promise is consistent with current educational trends and practices and will usher Kenyan children into the digital age as the country moves forward to Vision 2030. The laptop program is timely because computer literacy in the 21st century is just as important as the 3Rs (reading, writing and arithmetic) of the early 20th century. This is an indication that the school education system is experiencing significant pressure to change. As schools change, the work of teachers is also changing. It is, therefore, important to establish those characteristics that make teachers adopt and integrate technology into teaching. 

Nakuru Town Sub-county 
Nakuru Town Sub-county is located within Nakuru town. Nakuru is the capital of Nakuru County and former capital of the Rift Valley Province. It is an important educational center with both public and private institutions. There are 22 public secondary schools in Nakuru Town Sub-county of Nakuru County (see Appendix III). Out of these, one is a girls’ day school, one is a girls’ boarding school, one is both boys’ boarding and mixed day school, one is a boys’ boarding school and eighteen are mixed day schools. There are two national schools, five county schools, and 15 district schools.

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Item Type: Kenyan Topic  |  Size: 58 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
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