IMPORTANCE OF IMPROVISATION IN TEACHING AND LEARNING AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IKORODU LOCAL GOVERNMENT

ABSTRACT 
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the importance, availability and utilization of instructional materials by Senior secondary Agricultural science teachers in Lagos State. Six research questions and four null hypotheses were formulated to guide the researcher in carrying out the study. The descriptive survey research design was used. The population was made up of four hundred and thirty-one Agricultural science teachers in Senior secondary schools in the State. All the members of this population were studied; hence, there was no sampling. The data collection instrument was a structured questionnaire, comprising a checklist and other items that were designed on a 5-point scale. The data collected were analysed using frequencies, percentages, mean scores and standard deviation to answer the research questions. The t-test was used in testing the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of this study indicated that materials for teaching Agricultural science in Senior secondary were largely important but unavailable, there was a low extent of utilization of the available instructional materials by the teachers and the Agricultural science teachers improvised few of the instructional materials available for teaching. The teachers used students as the main source for improvisation of instructional materials and encountered a variety of teacher, student, and school environment related problems in improvising instructional materials. Among the recommendations made was that government and non-governmental organizations should sponsor Agricultural science teachers for training in improvisation of instructional materials. Finally, the limitations of the study and suggestions for further research were given.

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 
Background of the Study 
Instructional material is crucial to teaching and learning processes. A dedicated classroom teacher feels satisfied when he realizes the objectives he has set out to achieve for every lesson. In order to achieve this, a trained teacher employs a number of methods, design and actions, one of which includes the use of instructional material. Instructional materials are referred to as the resources which both the teachers and students use for the purpose of effective teaching and learning. Okwo (1996) defined instructional materials as those materials that teachers can use in teaching to facilitate the learning of a particular subject or lesson. The list of instructional materials are inexhaustible and their limit is the teacher's level of resourcefulness, creativity and imagination. Rominszowski (1996) listed instructional material to include newspaper, magazines, pictures, textbooks, chalkboard, laboratory equipment, posters, bulletins, journal, radio, television, audiocassettes, tapes, film scripts and slides. Others are overhead and opaque projector, real objects and computer. Okebukola (2003) described instructional materials as information multipliers because they are capable of providing learners with opportunities to learn beyond teachers capabilities when utilized for instruction. 

Utilization of instructional material is the act of using and applying the available instructional material in the actual teaching/learning process. Where resources are supplied for instructional use, teachers are expected to utilize them to support a smooth and meaningful flow of instruction and promote understanding of the content being taught. To facilitate the teaching and learning of Agricultural science in Senior secondary schools, the skillful teacher can select those instructional materials that are relevant to the Agricultural science curriculum. This could be implemented from the numerous instructional materials that abound in the market or that are available in the school. When instructional materials are not utilized, effective teaching and permanent learning are difficult to take place because students cannot actively participate in a way that challenge them to think creatively. Despite the intention of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme, adequate provision and utilization of instructional material for effective teaching and learning of Agricultural science has not been attained. 

Statement of the Problem 
Effective transfer of practical skills by the teachers to the students in Agricultural science require good teaching methods as well as instructional materials. This implies that technological changes have always necessitated the need for continuous provision of instructional material. Despite all the emphasis on the acquisition of practical skills and basic knowledge by the students for various activities in Agricultural science it still requires the good manipulation of skill oriented instructional facilities. Yet, the instructional materials are unavailable, insufficient and inadequate (Ogwo, 1996). This may have been responsible for the Senior secondary school Agricultural science teachers' adoption of theoretical approach in teaching Agricultural science in most urban and rural secondary schools in Lagos State. This aspect of teaching/learning seem not to appeal to the students sensory organs of learning as a result of unfavourable situation. 

For effective teaching and learning to take place, there is need for adequate teaching with instructional materials (NERDC, 2008). Teachers of Senior secondary Agricultural science are expected to improvise instructional materials for teaching/learning of Agricultural science. Arkhurst & Anyakoha (2004) noted that the use of tools of environment and other improvised practical facilities, if undertaken correctly, improves students’ learning. This implies that instructional materials could be sourced from the local environment by improvisation, and utilized adequatelty for the teaching/learning process. Whether or not Senior secondary Agricultural science teachers in Lagos State improvise and utilize instructional materials is yet to be empirically ascertained. Hence this study was to investigate the improvisation and utilization of instructional materials for teaching Agricultural science in Senior secondary schools in Lagos State. 

Purpose of the Study 
The general purpose of this study was to investigate the improvisation and utilization of instructional materials for teaching Agricultural science by senior secondary teachers in urban/rural schools in Lagos State. Specifically, the study would: 

1. ascertain the various ways instructional materials are being improvised for teaching Senior secondary Agricultural science students. 
2. determine the problems encountered by senior secondary Agricultural science teachers in improvising instructional materials for teaching. 
3. identify strategies for enhancing improvisation of instructional materials by Senior secondary Agricultural science teachers. 

Significance of the Study 
This study is significant because the findings would be of benefit to the Agricultural science teachers, the students, Lagos State Universal Basic Education Board (LSUBE) and the society at large. 

The results of this study would immensely motivate Agricultural science teachers' curiosity towards improvisation and utilization of instructional materials for teaching/learning. The findings of this study could enable teachers to utilize less expensive materials which the students can easily identify in their locality to make their teaching lively. When teachers improvise for teaching, teaching will be very fascinating, less boring and learning would be interesting . 

The findings of this study would be beneficial to the students. This is because when teachers improvise and utilize instructional materials in teaching Agricultural science, the students' interest and understanding in learning the subject could be enhanced. 

The findings of the study would provide statistical data for Lagos State Ministry of Education and Lagos State Universal Basic Education Board (LSUBE) towards solving the problems encountered by Senior secondary Agricultural science teachers in improvisation of instructional materials. Such findings will as well serve as data base for Lagos State Ministry of Education and Finally, the society would equally benefit from this study if the Agricultural science teachers improvise and utilize instructional materials, Agricultural science teaching will be lively. If the findings of this study are as well published in journals and other news media they could contribute meaningfully to socio-cultural advancement of the society. 

Scope of the Study 
This study was limited to available instructional material for teaching Agricultural science in Upper Senior secondary, their utilization and how instructional materials were being improvised. Also the problems and strategies in the utilization and improvisation of instructional materials by teachers of Senior secondary Agricultural science in ikorodu LGA of Lagos State were investigated. 

Research Questions 
The following questions were answered in the course of this study 

1. In what ways are the various instructional materials being improvised for teaching Senior secondary Agricultural science students? 
2. What problems do senior secondary teachers encounter in improvising instructional materials for teaching? 
3. What strategies can be adopted to enhance senior secondary Agricultural science teachers’ improvisation of instructional materials?

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 51 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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