ADOPTION OF ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES AND SAHIWAL CATTLE BREED AND THEIR IMPACT ON HOUSEHOLD FARM INCOME IN NAROK AND KAJIADO COUNTIES OF KENYA

ABSTRACT 
Livestock production in Semi-Arid Lands (SALs) of Kenya has continued to decline over the past decade, thereby threating the livelihood of pastoralists. In the recent past, there have been concerted efforts by the Government to supply more hardy cattle breeds with ability to produce enough meat and milk for pastoral communities. Despite introduction of high perfoming breeds such as Sahiwal, the dissemination of this genetic material among the pastoralists remain low. Whereas pastoralists’ demand for the Sahiwalbull has outstripped its supply, the economic assessment for viability and implications of the alternativeAssited Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) among pastoralist communities remain a mystery. Using a random sample of 384 livestock farmers from Narok and Kajiado Counties, this study evaluated the actual and potential adoption of Artificial Insemination (AI) as an alternative breeding technology to the use of bull. Data were analyzed using ordered probit model, double bounded dichotomous choice model and Average Treatment Effect (ATE) estimation framework. The results from ordered probit model show that the decision to adopt AI as well as farmer perception is influenced by different factors. These factors differed across the AI perception and adoption decision, and they include: age and education level of household head, household size, herd size, access to extension services, group membership, experience in livestock keeping, technology awareness and the production system. The Double bounded dichotomous choice model results indicate that most of the pastoralists’ willingness to pay (WTP) was 1,853.19 Kenya shillings (KES), which reflects a premium of 23.55%for AI compared to the existing market price of KES 1,500. The bidding decision by the farmer was determined by his/her access to extension services, herd size, off-farm incomeand awareness of AI services.The ATE for the treated revealed that there is potential for adoption of Sahiwalbreed since adopters earn an average of KES 661,179.87 compared to their counterparts who earn KES 564,779.67 from sales of live animals and milk. This reflects an annual increment of 17%in farm income over and above what Sahiwal non-adopters earn which was quite substantive given the difficulties involved in livestock production in SALs where access to water and seasonal changes affect the overall production yield of the farm. 

CHAPTER ONE 
INTRODUCTION 
Background information 
Agriculture remains the most important economic sector in many African Countries in terms of food supply, employment creation, income generation and foreign exchange earnings for over 60% of rural population (UNDP, 2012). The importance of the livestock sub-sector to their farming systems in the sub-region is reflected by its contribution to crop production, providing employment throughout the year and spreading risks. It also providesfunds for buying crop inputs and financing farm investments through sales, forming a major capital reserve and enhancing the economic viability and sustainability of the farming systems (Steinfeld and Mack, 1995). 

In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), pastoralism is predominantly practised in arid and semi-arid lands (SALs). These areas are hot and dry, with low and erratic rainfall. Pastoral livelihoods in Africa evolved in response to climate variability over thousands of years ago when the Sahara entered a period of prolonged drought (Kirkbride and Grahn, 2008).It is estimated that 70% of the rural poor in SSA own livestock (Otte and Knips, 2005). Moreover, the demand for livestock products in Africa is projected to double between the year 2000 and 2030 due to rapid increasing human population growth, urbanization, changing lifestyles and increasing incomes (Delgado et al., 2001). Currently, most livestock related food products are obtained from smallholder and pastoral systems in SALs despite the production systems being characterised by low production as a result of climatic effects, lack of genetic merit on available livestock, inadequate feed supply and quality, poor animal health, livestock performing multiple functions in the livelihood systems, poor management and lack of credit facilities, especially among poor farming households (Mack, 1993). 

In Kenya, over eighty percent of theland mass is SAL, with livestock contributing 10% of total and 30% of agricultural gross domestic product (GDP), withdairy products accounting for 30% of livestock GDP (Muriuki, 2011). Furthermore, livestock population is concentrated in the ASALs, whichaccounts for 90% of employment and more than 95% of family incomes (Muriuki, ibid). Yet, pastoralistsin these areas are among the poorest sub- populations by standard income or expenditure measures; they suffer from high rates of malnutrition and illiteracy, and they are vulnerable to regular drought, civil unrest and other economic shocks (Ng’eno et al., 2010). 

Narok and Kajiado Counties form part of the SALs in Kenya that are characterised by low crop production potential. Livestock production systems predominate since animals can be moved in response to spatio-temporal variability in economic, environmental, epidemiological and security conditions. Livestock provide herders not only with meat, milk andblood for sustenance, but also, through livestock sales asa means for financing basic needs including shelter, school fees andmedical expenses. During drought, there is increased livestock death, acute food shortage and increased migration by pastoralist communities in search of pasture and water resources which in some cases result in inter-communal resource conflicts.In the face of harsh climatic conditions, coupled with low access to basic social services, such as infrastructure and educational facilities, most pastoralists have established settlements and abandoned nomadic pastoralism (Desta and Coppock, 2004). Therefore an increasing number of cattle keepers have adopted a sedentary lifestyle and are practicing mixed crop livestock farming and deriving livelihoods from other non-pastoral activities (Fratkin and Mearns, 2003). Such a transformation necessitates appropriate strategies to increase livestock production in pastoral areas through continued improvement of existing indigenous breeds, feeding and grazing strategies that are sustainable across different production systems. 

Indigenous cattle breeds are diverse with unique genetic attributes such as adaptation to heat and drought, tolerance to diseases and utilizaton of low-quality feeds that are readily available in SALs of Kenya.This means that improvement of the local breeds through crossbreeding with exotic breeds in order to achieve the desired traits is important for livestock farmers. Thus the need for importation of Sahiwalcattle (Bos indicus) in Kenya in early 1930s from India and Pakistan mainly for upgrading with the local Zebu for higher milkproduction and enhanced growth performance under low-input production conditions (Meynand Wilkins, 1974).Since then Sahiwalhas remained one of the most attractive breeds for pastoral farmers because of its relatively high milk production and growth potential as well as good reproductive ability (Ilatsia et al., 2011). 

Over the years, pastoralists have continued to upgrade their indigenous cattle with Sahiwalbreed through exchange of bulls among themselves. The use of the bull as the main means of disseminating genetic materials is prone to spreading reproductive diseases and inbreeding. Despite these shortcomings, adoption of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in pastoral areas is almost non-existent. These technologies involve introduction of semen or embryo into the dam using equipment by an expert instead of the natural mating. The technologies include AI andEmbryo Transplants (ET). Since the utilization of AI is still generally low even for the Kenyan highlands usually known for its lead in dairy production, preference for natural service is likely to prevail in the short term (Omiti, 2002). 

Statement of research problem 
Kenya has made tremendous improvements in the dairy sub-sector despite the numerous challenges facing pastoralist farmers in SALs. These challenges include inadequate supply of bulls for breeding which necessitate need to explore farmers perceptions towardsalternativeassisted reproductive technologies; specifically artificial insemination.Even though high perfoming breeds such as Sahiwalhave been introduced, dissemination and adoption of this genetic material among the pastoralists remains low. Whereas pastoralists’ demand for the Sahiwalbull (superior breed) has outstripped its supply, the economic assessment for its viability and implications of the alternative ARTs among pastoralist communities is yet to be established. Therefore this study seeks to establish the viability of AI and the impact of Sahiwal adoption. 

Objectives 
General objective 
The general objective of this study was to improve the dissemination of Artificial Insemination for Sahiwal breed adoption and its impact on household farm income of pastoralists in semi-arid areas of Narok and Kajiado Counties. 

Specific objectives 
1. To determine pastoral farmers’ preferences for and choices of breeding services in semi-arid areas. 
2. To estimate pastoral farmers’ willingness to pay for artificial insemination services in semi-arid areas across Counties. 
3. To determine the impact of Sahiwalbreed adoption on household farm income between Sahiwal adopters and non-adopters. 

Hypotheses 
To achieve the specific objectives, the following hypotheses were postulated for testing: 

1. Farmer’s preference for and choice offor bulls are not significanctly different from assisted reproductive technologies. 
2. There is no significant difference in farmers’ willingness to pay for artificial insemination services in semi-arid areas across Counties. 
3. The impact of Sahiwal breed adoption on household farm income is not significantly different between sahiwal adopters and non-adopters. 

Justification of the study 
Low milk production in SALs pose both economic and nutritional threats to the rising population of the pastoralists. This therefore calls for urgent interventions to increase livestock production in these areas to curb malnutrition among pastoralists. Adoption of Sahiwal breed known for producing more milk compared to the small East African Zebus (EAZs) would cushion the disadvataged gender (women and children) against malnutrition. Moreover, sales from surplus milk would provide the much needed income to pastoralist families to cater for other expenses including production costs, schooling of children and diversification of animal feeds. This study therefore provide insights on factors that influence effective Sahiwal breeding in pastoral areas and inform policy and dairy sector players on the existing potential that can be harnessed through dissemination of Sahiwal breed. The study also highlights the significant role AI can play in dissemination of Sahiwal genetic resources andeasing the demand for the bull from the National Sahiwal Stud (NSS). Comparative study of production systems in SALs provide farmers with alternatives that optimise their production goals given the existing constraints in the face of climatic changes. The study findings are applicable in other SALs areas given that Sahiwal breed has high reproductive performance and is more adaptive to such conditions. Therefore the need for accelerated dissemination of high yielding breeds to increase livestock production and generate more income in pastoralist communities can not be over emphasized. 

Scope and limitation of the study 
The study focussed mainly on the livestock farmers in selected districts of Kajiado and Narok Counties. The study usedcross-sectional data collected during short rain season for purposes ofsocio-economic evaluation of the Sahiwalcattle. 

Definition of terms 
Nucleus breeding system: Is a breeding programme where the NSS coordinated nucleus herds were the main source of breeding animals for other medium and small holder livestock farms (KARI, 2004). 

Perception: Refers to a mental set, thought or a conceptual direction of an individual or group of individuals about an issue in perspective (Van den Ban, 1996). 

Technology adoption: This is the mental process an individual passes from first hearing about an innovation to final uptake (Rogers, 1962). 

Pastoralism: Isan economic and social system well adapted to dry land conditions and characterized by a complex set of practices and knowledge that has permitted the maintenance of a sustainable equilibrium among pastures, livestock and people (Koocheki and Gliessman, 2005). 

Pastoralists: These are people who live mostly in dry, remote areas. Their livelihoods depend on their intimate knowledge of the surrounding ecosystem and on the well-being of their livestock (IFAD, 2009). 

Artificial Insemination: Is the process of collecting semen from very top genetic potential bulls, assessing, diluting, packing in straws and preserving in liquid nitrogen at low temperatures for depositing in the uterus of a cow that is on heat by use of equipment instead of allowing natural mating (Oluoch-Kosura et al., 1999). 

Household: A group of people bound together by ties, kinship or joint financial decision living together under a single roof or compound, are answerable to one person as the head and share same eating arrangements. 
Outline of the thesis The remaining part of this thesis is organized in seven chapters. Chapter two describes the general literature reviewed; dairy production systems in pastoral areas, reproduction technologies available to boost production and discusses the underpinning conceptual and theoretical framework of the study. Chapter three describes the study area, sampling procedure adopted, data collection approach and the data analytical tools used in the study. Chapter four presents pastoralists’ choice and preference for a particular breeding service in SALs. The second objective that seeks to establish pastoralists’ WTP for artificial insemination across different production systems is addressed in the fifth chapter. The last objective of this study on the impact of Sahiwal breed adoption on the income of adopters and non-adopters is established in the sixth chapter. Chapter seven provides the summary of the whole thesis covering each chapter conclusions, and implications for stakeholders.

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Item Type: Kenyan Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 96 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: KSh900  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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