UNITED STATES OF AMERICA WAR ON TERRORISM: IMPACT ON GLOBAL SECURITY (A CASE STUDY OF AFGHANISTAN)

ABSTRACT
This study intends to critically carry out an assessment among other things, role the United States is playing in the fight against terrorism; whether the United States actions conform with international laws and conventions. In order to research on the problem, the following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study; the war on terrorism has affected terrorists financing; the war on terrorism has had significant impact on global security. The Power Theory was found viable as an analytical tool because it is most suitable for the study. The theory posits that wealth and military strength cannot make a state super power, but that states also need a high level of influence as in the case with the United States. That is why the United States is referred to as super power, because it possesses military strength, wealth and influence over most nations. In order for us to achieve the objectives of this study, information were derived through content analysis of articles, documents, journals, internet sources, magazines, monographs and books related to the study. The study found out that the United States did not declare war against terrorism because it was interested in the security situation in Afghanistan in particular and the world in general, but because the Taliban and their allies finally engaged in activities that directly harmed the United States.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page
Table of Content
Table of Illustration
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objectives of Study
1.4 Significance of Study
1.5 Scope and Limitations
1.6 Literature Review
1.7 Theoretical Framework
1.8 Hypotheses
1.9 Methodology
1.10 Definition of Key Concepts
References

CHAPTER TWO
HISTORICAL ANTECEDENT OF AFGHANISTAN
2.1 Afghanistan and Terrorist Activities
2.2 The Fall of the Taliban Regime
References

CHAPTER THREE
3.1 Fighting Terrorists Finance
References

CHAPTER FOUR
THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM AND GLOBAL SECURITY
4.1 America’s War on Terrorism, impact on Global security
4.2 The United Nations and The War Against Terrorism
References

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation
References
Bibliography
Appendix


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1       BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Terrorism is a phenomenon that governments around the world have come to fear. According to Jenkins (1975:1), terrorism is referred to as, a strategy whereby violence is used to produce certain effects in a group of people so as to attain some political end or ends, and one of the effects of such a strategy is often fear, although there are also other effects. Thornton (1964:73), in his contribution sees terrorism as the use of terror as a symbolic act designed to influence political behaviour by extra normal means, entailing the use of a threat of violence. Terrorism therefore may achieve political ends by either mobilizing forces sympathetic to the cause of the terrorists or by immobilizing the forces of the incumbent authorities.

Terrorism is a phenomenon that governments around the world have come to fear. According to O’Connor (1987:149);

The problem of how to deal with the threat of terrorism has been grappled with by political leaders of virtually every democratic nation (O’ Connor, 1987:149).

Since the Second World War, there have been hundreds of terrorists groups operating world wide, each pursuing its own political agenda that ranges from aircraft hijackings, hostage taking and embassy and department store bombings, to the assassination of political leaders and diplomats. According to Bush (1988:131);

Combating this continuing stream of terrorist events has proved a troublesome political issue for democratic governments, especially when trying to protect their citizens and property overseas (Bush, 1988:131).

Governments can usually enact legislation to guard against terrorism at home and develop their domestic, law enforcement agencies to detect and deter potential local events. It can also exercise a large measure of control when resolving events such as hostage situations that have already unfolded domestically, but when faced with events overseas, far from their geographic sovereignty, governments are especially vulnerable and terrorists know this. It is a notable fact that some states have regarded terrorism as one means of conducting foreign relations. In this view therefore, Davis (1990:10) posited that, Libya under Murmah Ghadaffi, established a large network of training camps which at times gave support to specific attacks. He went further to state that during the 1980s, Libya trained as many as seven to eight thousand terrorists and guerillas per year, spent approximately one hundred million US dollars on arms and financial disbursement to Palestinian terrorists, shared intelligence with terrorists groups, provided transport aboard Libyan airlines, supplied false passports and save-housed terrorists operating in Europe (Davis, 1990:10).

Suffice it to say therefore that, the activities of terrorists escalated and came to limelight in contemporary times, as a result of the terrorists’ attacks on World Trade Centre and the Pentagon on the 11th of September, 2001, popularly referred to as “9/11”.

According to Andreani (2004:31), September 11th was for all to see, an act of war. The sheer magnitude of the attacks, their merciless violence, plus the world wide impact of the damages, immediately imposed the word “WAR” as the only one commensurate with the event and the outrage it had provoked. Less than 30 days after the attacks, President George W. Bush of the United States, declared ‘WAR ON TERRORISM’ with a global reach and announced that the war would end “only with the eradication of this evil”. In the fall of 2001, the swift punishment of the perpetrators of these attacks, and the defeat of their Taliban accomplices following a lightening military campaign in Afghanistan, translated the US president’s promise into deeds.

The question one may wish to ask at this point is, “can the war on terrorism end with a declaration of final victory?” The impact of the September 11 attack on US has thus been contradictory. There is no doubt that it did deliver a salvage blow to America’s prestige, its economy and its international dignity. It has also helped justify a massive military build-up which has placed the United States in an even more dominant position than it was already. However, the knowledge or belief that terrorism is, directly or indirectly, the hostile act of another state provides the target state with a visible foe and creates the circumstances for the exercise of diplomatic or military responses, which includes, the imposition of military, economic or political sanctions and retaliation with the aim of deterring future terrorists attacks as evident in the case of Afghanistan.

It is imperative to state that the war on global terrorism may not end with a declaration of final victory, the use of the word, ‘war’ in reference to such evils, and to terrorism itself, rather than against a designated enemy, is essentially metaphorical. Based on the above, it is important to carry out a research on the United States war on terrorism and the impacts it has on global security, with a case study of Afghanistan, so as to ascertain the role the United States is playing, whether it is of selfish or of collective global interest.

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
According to a diplomat, as quoted by Ikenberry (2001:29), “One knows where a war begins, but one never knows where it ends”. After the September 11 attacks, President George W. Bush, declared “war on terrorism” and announced that the war would end only with the eradication of this evil. Declaring a war against terrorism is warranted to the extent that there is a normative element in any war, so that success should confirm that certain types of behaviours are unacceptable and that the perpetrators can expect to see their efforts thwarted and eventually punished. The problem with this designation is that, it takes the war beyond the immediate cause and raises questions of what is to be included and excluded.

Many acts can be described as terrorism and they might be undertaken in the name of many causes. The use of the word, “war” in reference to terrorism itself, rather than against a designated enemy is essentially metaphorical. According to Freedman (2001:63); Al-Qaeda (which claimed to be behind the September 11 attacks on U.S) does not claim to be fighting a war for terrorism, but one that pits true Islam against Christianity and Judaism. Suffice it to say therefore that, according to the above statement, this is a war about the future of Islam and therefore about the grievance of all states with Muslim populations, and all conflicts in which Muslim groups are directly involved.

This statement which is credited to Osama Bin Laden has done more harm than good to the Muslim extremists in particular and global security in general, which is evident in the nearly everyday suicide bombings taking place all over the world. These extremists see this war, not against Christians alone, but the US which they have tagged “infidel”. The world is now faced with the mighty task of living with not just terrorism and its spate of violence, but its impacts on global security if not managed.

Suffice it to say here that, if careful efforts are not taken diplomatically, the “war against terrorism”, that is being championed by the United States of America, may lead to an adverse impact on global security that can even lead to a Third World War. Not also forgetting the number of lives and properties, including U.S tax payers’ monies that have being lost to this cause. Yet, the U.S is finding it difficult to completely curb terrorism, because these terrorist groups have continued to metamorphose in style and sophistication and not every country is cooperative with the U.S in its war against terrorism and means by which terrorism thrives, especially through terrorist financing.

To this effect, we raise the following research questions which form the basis of this study.
Has terrorist financing affected the war on terrorism?

Has the war on terrorism had any impact on global security?

1.3       OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The primary aim of this study is, amongst others, geared towards;

1.Analyzing the impacts of terrorist activities on global security.

2. Appraising the role the United States is playing in the war against terrorism, so as to ascertain whether it conforms with the stipulations of international law.

3. Assessing the undertones in U.S unilateral declaration of war on global terrorism.
Finding out the implications of the dual strategy employed by the United States in Afghanistan, in the war against terrorism.

1.4       SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
Studies in this subject have exhaustively pin pointed the negative impact of terrorism on global security, which no doubt has so far affected the peace and stability of the international community.

This study will form a basis for further research and a reference point in the study of war against terrorism. It will help to profer ways by which the fight against terrorism can be carried out diplomatically, so as to avoid any actions that may lead to a Third World War. The study will also throw more light on the nature of terrorism as well as a guide to students, institutions and countries that are involved and concerned about the war against terrorism and especially in Afghanistan.

1.5       SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS
As a result of time constraint, this study shall cover the war against terrorism after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States of America, to June, 2010, so as to appraise its effects and impacts on global security, using the experience of Afghanistan. The study encountered many obstacles in the process of carrying out this research work, which includes financial constraint which is the reason for my inability to visit Afghanistan for first hand information.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 99 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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