THE EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON WORKERS’ EFFECTIVENESS

ABSTRACT
The study examined the effect of organizational culture on workers’ effectiveness. One hundred workers participated were 30 are males and 70 females. Their ages ranged between 20 -55 years with a mean age of 26 and SD of 3.24 and cuts across both male and female gender. The instruments used were a self structure questionnaire and the leadership questionnaire designed by Don Clark (2002). Three hypotheses were tested in the study. The results revealed that there was a significant relationship of autocratic managerial leadership behaviour styles and aggressive-defensive organizational culture on workers’ effectiveness (F 1.314 at P< 0.05) and democratic managerial leadership behaviour styles and constructive organizational culture on workers’ effectiveness (F 1.199 at P< 0.05). Similarly there was a significant association of managerial styles and organizational culture on workers’ effectiveness. The result suggests that managerial leadership behaviour styles and organizational cultures have significant impact on workers’ effectiveness (F 0.988 at P< 0.05) and that changes in managerial leadership behaviour styles have an effect on organizational culture up to a certain point were they both remain constant. Hence, the findings concluded that for effective management of modern organization, managers should be able to harmonize their leadership behaviour and the organizational values to achieve the desired effect.


CHAPTER 1
1.1       INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM
For most of our lives, we are members of one organization or another-colleges, religions, a branch of business, a professional group etc. Some organizations are formally structured like the public or government businesses while some are informally structured like the school clique. But all are kept together by a group of people who see that benefits arise from working together towards some common goal or purpose. These goals depend largely on the ideology that backs the formation of the organization. For instance, some are formed for profit maximization, some for spreading knowledge, some for defense, some for social satisfaction others for affection or love etc. Consequently, a basic element of any organization is goal.

Today, organizations have become more diffuse and less hierarchical and less formally structured in place to provide the guidance for standards and norms of behaviour and as managerial structures have been replaced or decoupled from organizations and coupled with the fact that experts from different areas of activity, different levels of society coming from different backgrounds and culture work together to successfully achieve the goals and objectives of the organization.


Workforce in any organization are highly valued by the society because, they represent the total of the inherent abilities, skills exemplified in the talents and skills of the employees. Thus, it is obvious why organizations should place high value on its effectiveness. In order to achieve satisfaction in these areas, an organization’s strategy needs to be aligned with the external environment. The mode of workers effectiveness concerns the internal process approach which focus on minimizing strain, integrating individuals and the organization and conducting smooth and efficient operations (Ndukaihe, 2005).

Organizational culture is as a result becoming increasingly more relevant to providing the necessary guidance for standards and norms of behaviour and an essential component for building the best possible managerial development system (Avolio, 1999) and work effectiveness. Organizational culture as an important supporting framework for managerial development effort is very critical to understand, this is as a result of the fact that management sees to the day to day running of the organization, and thus they are indirectly responsible for the effectiveness or performance of their workers. Although, managers in Africa are obliged by their education and training to predicate their management practices on western models, these managers are still embedded in cultures that are strikingly different from those in industrialized west (Abudu,1986; Eze,1995). There is need therefore, for managers to recognize the various perspectives, values and cultures that employees bring with them to the organization and try to integrate these different cultures with the goals and culture of the organization because they constitute a significant source of contributions due to the fact that organizational goals and objectives are derived from organizational values and norms because they provide the guidelines or expectations that prescribe appropriate kinds of behaviour of organizational members in particular situations and control their behaviour towards one another(Hill and Jones, 2001).

Managers being the basic resource of the business enterprise are also the most expensive resource in most organizations and the one that depreciates the fastest and needs the most constant replenishment that Drucker (1982) noted that it is the duty of the executive to remove ruthlessly anyone- and especially any manager who consistently fails to perform with high distinction. Day (1982) supporting this says that when business is bad; always start weeding out at the top. Thus, how well managers manage and are managed determines whether organizational goals will be reached. It equally determines how well the enterprise manages worker and work. Thus, Knight (1986) argued that to find men capable of managing business efficiently and secure them, the positions of responsible control is perhaps the most important single problem of economic organization on efficiency scale. For the workers’ attitude reflects, above all the attitude of his management. It directly mirrors management’s competence and structure. The workers’ effectiveness is determined largely by the way he is being managed thus implying that the effectiveness of workers production process is partly dependent on proper leadership and managerial ability. As a result managers must encompass more than devising visions and seeing that policies and procedures are carried out effectively. Thus, management must focus their attention on managerial and workers’ effectiveness in order to cope with current complex, volatile environmental and cultural trends in modern organizations.

With regards to this present study some questions are necessary to be asked as they may help in throwing more light on the problems of this study and they are: Do we feel that Nigerian workers are ignorant of the type of managerial leadership behaviour styles adopted by their superiors? What effects do these managerial leadership behaviour styles have on their work performance? Does organizational culture contribute to workers effectiveness?

1.2                  STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Every work organization is concerned with being effective upon the attainment of its aim and objectives rest the success and ultimate survival of the organization. In many industries or organizations today, there tend to be a norm, culture, custom and/or managerial behaviour that is peculiar to them and their environment that causes one to wonder if these behaviours have any effect on the performance of the workers or the organization. The quest for identity and uniqueness also helped to enforce these behaviours. The problem of motivation, lack of job satisfaction, creativity, initiative and absenteeism tends to be on the increase in some companies, while in some it is non-existent. Some companies are doing well and their workers are proud to identify with them outside the official working hours while workers in another company tend to withdraw from being identified as a member of such companies or organizations. Organizations that operate on supporting their workers, looking into their workers’ welfare, seeking their workers opinion before embarking on any venture seem to be doing well while some other organizations that seem to operate with same method seem worse off. Likewise, some organizations thrive on competitive culture and authoritarian management, others on participative management and supportive culture while some others would prefer the combination of competitive culture and participative leadership. Management quality is thus recognized as one of the most important factors in the success of any organization among other variables. Since these discrepancies are noticed, the study tries to investigate the influence of managerial leadership behaviour and organizational culture on workers’ effectiveness. It will try to find out if the combination of a particular managerial leadership behaviour and organizational culture will have any effect on workers’ effectiveness and to what extent these variables influence the efficacy of the work force.


1.3                  PURPOSE OF STUDY
Culture gives birth and defines organizational objectives while managerial leadership behaviour tends to integrate management function and organizational culture to achieve desired effect in view of the fact that if these managerial actions and organizational culture are not aligned together, the organization is in difficult time (Stoner, Freeman and Gilbert, 2005). Culture has been accepted as a “fact of organizational life” by managers and has become an integral aspect of many organizational development programs (Martin, 1992). Previous work on organizational cultures has focused on descriptions of culture or a typology of culture (House, Javidan, Hanges, and Dorfman, 2002). Certain types of organizational cultures or styles of management have been associated for both the effectiveness of the organization and for workers within the organization (Deal and Kennedy, 1982, Schein, 1996). In contrast, this study attempts to link managerial leadership behaviour and organizational culture to workers’ effectiveness within the organization. Specifically, the researcher deemed it necessary to:

i.             Identify the managerial leadership behaviour and prevailing organizational culture in Nigerian organizations.

ii.              To determine the extent to which organizational culture and leadership styles influence workers’ effectiveness.


iii.              To determine the degree of influence between managerial leadership styles and organizational cultures on workers’ effectiveness.

1.4                  SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The importance of this study is as follows:
i.             The findings of this study will be useful to management in any organizational setting because the type of managerial leadership behaviour style and organizational culture affects the level of performance in any given work setting and therefore the awareness of the limitations, problems and advantages of the different managerial leadership behaviour styles would enable managers decide which one to be involved with.

ii.              The study will create awareness among organizations of the managerial leadership behaviour style that can lead to workers’ effectiveness.

iii.              It would help psychologists who find themselves in any work setting to focus their attention on the managerial leadership behaviour style that will give rise to organizational efficiency and equally equip them with suitable behavioural method to use when managing problems arising from industrial disputes, and organizational cultural conflicts.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 65 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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