This project work is aimed at having a complete analysis and design of a grain dryer that will utilize Kerosene as its fuel with consideration of pressure build up for saturated range for our local farmers. The analysis and design has its bases on the three mode of heat transfer operations, strength of materials and its availability. The analysis and design of the grain dryer will be of more benefit to agricultural sectors for the preservation of grains for both food consumption and future cultivation for a variable temperature. In the course of this analysis and design mechanisms, some essential mathematical models like Fourier laws of conduction, heat transfer equations relative to Stefan Boltzman and Stoicheometic analysis for the combustion of hydrocarbon together with fuel-air ratio were considered while the grains considered in this analytical design include maize (main), wheat, groundnut and sorghum. The temperature gradient at (dT/dx) relative to the wall components of the designed grain dryer prototype was equally analyzed. The grain dryer is such a way that it consists of two distinct units viz heating unit and drying chamber.



For decades, other than cash crops, grain crops have played a vital role in agricultural sector in Nigeria where a greater number of populace are subsistence farmers by virtue of their occupation. Most of grain crops such as maize, sorghum, beans wheat to mention but a few, when properly processed yield to other finished and consumable food with great nutrient for human consumption. For instance, maize can be processed to obtain quake oat, flakes etc. and eventually, now that Nigeria is faced with oil and gas degradation, grain crop planting can take its advantage and at fast exported to earn foreign exchange.

Consequently, the researcher observed a great negligence in areas of adequate preservation and storage facilities of grain crops by our local farmers thus, leading to seasonal scarcity and unnecessary wastage of grain crops after each harvesting season for both consumption and next planting season. Varieties of these grains are found to be subjected to sunlight as the only drying mechanism but most times there is always little or no sunshine to dry them. However, the inability for our local farmers to afford themselves a mechanized storage and preservative grain equipments may be attributed to the level of abject poverty in Nigeria thus, the need for the analysis and design of a grain dryer that could be affordable, fuel economy and efficient in its capacity and operate under the three modes of heat transfer.

The aim / objective of this project work is to establish a complete analysis and design a grain dryer with the aid of mathematical models that is capable of utilizing kerosene as fuel for drying of grains but with a consideration to a pressure build up for saturated vapor and bearing in mind the state of economy and the scarcity of petrol (gasoline) as a means of fuel, thus analyzing and designing an affordable and less problematic grain dryer for our low-income farmers and to create an avenue for reduction in grain scarcity /wastage thus alleviating the related problems associated with storage facilities of grains in Nigeria.

Before the advent of oil and gas industries in Nigeria economy greater numbers of the populace are subsistence /commercial farmers by virtue of their occupation. Several grain crops are grown during each planting season of every year. A lot of resources in terms of time, manpower and money are being invested so as to have good returns during the harvesting period. After harvesting, much of the products are consumed while some are exported to the neighboring countries. In the process also, some percentage of the yield are kept and preserved for future use in the next planting season. Consequently some of these grains even before harvesting are attacked in the field by insects, birds and pest. The most agonizing problem is lack of preservation and storage facilities which leads to the scarcity of these grains after harvesting seasons. Farmers have lived with these problems for decades thereby drying their grains under unpredicted rising sun as their last resort. During rainy season, it becomes apparent that preservative of grain crops for both consumption and farming operations becomes difficult. It is against these backdrops that the researcher had to embark on this project work with the aim of analyzing and designing a grain dryer that will use kerosene as fuel for low income farmers.

The researcher deemed it necessary to have the following research questions at the back of the mind for the proper analysis and design of the grain dryer.

1.                  What are the major problems of our local farmers?

2.                  What is the essence of preservation of grain crops?

3.                  What is the purpose or need for analyzing and designing of grain dryer?

4.                  Can the grain dryer help to alleviate the problems faced by the local farmers?

5.                  What sample grain crops will be utilized for the analysis and design of the grain dryer?

6.                  What mechanism/models of heat transfer is required for appropriate operation of the grain dryer.
7.                  What are the major components of the designed tray dryer?

8.                  What is the working or operational principle of the designed grain dryer?

9.                  How can saturated vapour in the designed analysis of the grain dryer be curbed?

10.              How can the air to fuel ratio be determined in the cause of design analysis of the dryer?

Literature and statistics together with the present global economic meltdown have all proved it beyond all reasonable doubt that with the rate of exploration and world consumption of crude oil, most of the countries of the world will be faced with starvation or shortage of crude oil as means of generating their foreign revenue, hence, even the world leading countries such as America, Japan, Great Britain etc have started embarking or revisiting their agricultural sectors as last resorts to augmenting their national economy. Nigeria as our country should not be left out in returning to agricultural sector irrespective of how mechanized or local it could be. Thus, the analysis and design of the grain dryer will serve as an antidote that will rekindle or reinforce our local farmers in terms of confidence in storage facility for preservation of grains rather than depending solely on an unpredictable sunlight for preservation of grain crops. In the same token, the designed grain dryer will help to minimize the unnecessary wastage of crucial grains that could have served as consumable (food or crops for planting seasons).

There are numerous grain dryers that use various types of fuel for its operation and with different mechanisms in their design analysis. Thus, this project work is restricted to the design analysis of grain and depends on the three models of heat transfer for its operations for local farmers.

1.7       Nomenclature
HUF = Heat utilization factor.

COP = Coefficient of performance

dm/d0 = Drying rate.

q = Heat flow rate

A = Area normal to the direction of heat flow.

h1 = Enthalpy of drying air

h0 = Enthalpy of ambient air.

t2 = Dry bulb temperature of exhaust air.

t0 = Dry bulb temperature of ambient air.

t1 = dry bulb temperature of drying air.

ρ= Density of air.

Cp = Mean specific heat of dry product.

qx = Rate of convection heat transfer.

qx/A = Heat flux across any surface / total heat transfer

T = Temperature difference between the surface and fluid.

K = Thermal conductivity.

Wm = Weight on moisture.

Wd = Weight on dry material.

X3 –X2 = Thickness of insulator.

X2 –X1 = Thickness of inside drying chamber of metal wall.

h = Heat transfer coefficient.

δ   Stephan Boltzmann constant. T = Absolute temperature
Φ    = Relative Humidity.

ψ   = Specific humidity.

Tdp = Dew point temperature.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 53 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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