LABOUR MANAGEMENT RELATIONS: A TOOL FOR INDUSTRIAL HARMONY IN NIGERIA ORGANIZATIONS (A STUDY OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC)

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Industrial relations constitute one of the most delicate and complex problems of the modern industrial society. This phenomenon of a new complex industrial set-up is directly attributable to the emergence of ‘Industrial Revolution”. The pre-industrial revolution period was characterized by a simple process of manufacture, small scale investment, local markets and small number of persons employed. All this led to close proximity between the manager and the managed. Due to personal and direct relationship between the employer and the employee it was easier to secure cooperation of the latter. Any grievance or misunderstanding on the part of either party could be promptly removed. Also, there was no interference by the State in the economic activities of the people. Under such a set-up industrial relations were simple, direct and personal. This situation underwent a marked change with the advent of industrial revolution – size of the business increased needing investment of enormous financial and human resources, there emerged a new class of professional managers causing divorce between ownership and management, and relations between the employer and the employer became entranged and gradually antagonistic. This new set-up rendered the old philosophy of industrial relation irrelevant and gave rise to complex, indirect, and impersonal industrial relations.
Industry today is neither viewed as a venture of employers alone nor profit if considered as its sole objective. It is considered to be a venture based on purposeful cooperation between management and labour in the process of production and maximum social good is regarded as its ultimate end and both management and employees contribute in their own way towards its success. Similarly, labour today is no more an unorganized mass of ignorant works ready to obey without resentment or protest the arbitrary and discretionary dictates of management. The management has to deal with employees today nto as individuals but also as members of organized social groups who are very much conscious about their rights and have substantial bargaining strength. Hence, the objective of evolving and maintaining sound industrial relations is not only to find our ways and means to solve conflicts to resolve differences but also to secure the cooperation among the employees in the conduct of industry.
But maintaining smooth industrial relation is not an easy task. Almost all the industrialized countries of he world fact the problem of establishing and maintaining good management worker relationships in their industries. Each country has sought to find our solution, depending upon its economic, social and political environment. However, industrial conflict still arises and therefore establishment and maintenance of satisfactory industrial relations forms an important plank in the personnel policies of modern organization.
Meaning
 In the broad sense, industrial relations cover all such relationships that a business enterprise maintains with various sections of the society such as workers, state, customers and public who come into its contact.
 In the narrow sense, it refers to all types of relationships between employer and employees, trade union and management, works and union and between workers and workers. It also includes all sorts of relationships at both formal and informal levels in the organization.
 The term ‘industrial relations’ has been variously defined. J.T. Dunlop defines industrial relations as “the complex interrelations among managers, workers and agencies of the governments”. According to Dale Yoder “industrial relations is the process of management dealing with one or more unions with a view to negotiate and subsequently administer collective bargaining agreement or labour contract”.
In indusial relations, therefore, one seeks to study how people get on together at their work, what difficulties arise between them, how their relations including wages and working conditions etc., are regulated. Industrial relations, thus, include both ‘industrial relations’ and ‘collective relations’ as well as the role of the state in regulating these relations. Such a relationship is therefore complex and multidimensional resting on economic, social, psychological, ethical, occupational, political and legal levels. There are mainly two set of factors that determine the state of industrial relations – whether good or poor in any country. The first set of factors, described as ‘institutional factors’ include type of labour legislation, policy of state relating to labour and industry, extent and stage of development of trade unions and employers’ organizations and the type of social institutions. The other set of factors, described as ‘economic factors’ include the nature of economic organization capitalist, socialist technology, the sources of demand and supply in the labour market, the nature and composition of labour force etc.
Distinction between human relations and industrial relations
The term ‘human relations’ lays stress upon the processes of inter-personal relationships among individuals as well as the behavior of individuals as members of groups. The term ‘industrial relations’ is used widely in industrial organizations and refers to the relations between the employers and workers in an organization, at any specified time.
Thus, while problem of human relations are personal in character and are related to the behavior of individuals where moral and social element predominate, the term ‘industrial relations’ is comprehensive covering human relations and the relations between the employers and workers in an organization as well as matters regulated by law or by specific collective agreement arrived at between trade unions and the management.
However, the concept of ‘industrial relations’ has undergone a considerable change since the objective of evolving sound and healthy industrial relations today is not only to find out ways and means to solve conflicts or resolve difference but also t secure unreserved cooperation and goodwill to divert their interest and energies toward constructive channel. The problems of industrial relations are therefore, essentially problems that may be solved effectively only by developing in conflicting social groups of an industrial undertaking, a sense of mutual confidence, dependence and respect and at the same time encouraging them to come closer to each other for removing misunderstanding if any, in a peaceful atmosphere and fostering industrial pursuits for mutual benefits.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Human beings have insatiable needs and the urge to satisfy their needs creates problems in business organization. In fact human beings with insatiable needs constitute the workforce of an organization. It is important that problems that will distract them at work are taken care to a reasonable degree before they go off. Problems encountered at the work in any work environment could be either economical, social or political.
It is difficult to determine the extent of labour management relation as a tool for industrial harmony in Nigeria.
This research work therefore determined the degree of labour management as a tool for industry harmony.

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to:
1.      To identify the character of LMRs in Union bank Nigeria Plc.
2.      To determine whether the average worker is empowered to bargain with the employer in Union bank
Nigeria Plc.
3.      To ascertain workers response to workplace exploitation in Union bank Nigeria Plc.
4.      To determine the state of workers participation in Union bank Nigeria Plc.
5.      To examine the nature of the relationship between the Human Resource Management and Trade
Unions in the Union bank Nigeria Plc.
6.      To examine possible ways in which LMRs can be stabilized in Union bank Nigeria Plc.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The finding of this study shall be useful to organization in determine ways of solving problems of industrial unrest in to create industrial harmony. The project shall also be immense benefit to all prospective employees in business organization to determine various ways through which they related with employees to ensure industrial harmony.
The finding in this study shall also be useful to business administration and managers in designing effective strategies to ideal with their staff to ensure tranquil industrial atmosphere.

1.5 DELIMITATION OF STUDY
This study is delimited to determined only labour management relations a tool for industrial harmony in Nigeria Organization a study of Union Bank of Nigeria plc).

1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.      What is the character of labour management relations in Union bank Nigeria Plc?
2.      How empowered is the average worker to bargain with the employer in Union bank Nigeria Plc?
3.      What is the workers response to workplace exploitation in Union bank Nigeria Plc?
4.      What is the state of workers participation in Union bank Nigeria Plc?
5.      What is the nature of the relationship between the Human Resource Management and Trade Unions
in Union bank Nigeria Plc?
6.      In what ways can labour management relations be stabilized in Union bank Nigeria Plc?

OPERATIONALIZATION OF KEY CONCEPTS
Collective Bargaining - CB is the process of negotiation between employers and workers on the terms and conditions of employment. It involves the setting of terms and conditions of employment and the procedure for resolving workplace conflicts (NLC, 2011).
Collective Agreement – This is the agreement reached by both parties (the worker and the employer) or sometimes with the government during collective bargaining and is binding on the parties.
Human Resource Management – This is an integral part of the entire management of an industry that interacts with its workers, e.g. by providing training and development opportunities, appraisal to find out
about     individual     needs,     training     and     development     needs     analysis,     etc.    ({HYPERLINK
"http://www.thetimes100.co.uk"}). This is an organization‟s team responsible for recruiting, managing, and directing employees.
Industry – This can be defined as an organized and coordinated economic activity concerned with the production, manufacture, or construction of a particular product or range of products. 
Industrial Relations – This is concerned with the relationships which arise at and out of the workplace between labour and management and their representatives. These relationships and processes are influenced by the government and its agencies through policies, laws, institutions and programmes, and by the broader political, social, economic, technological and cultural characteristics of each country (Macdonald, 1997).

Job Insecurity – This is a worker‟s perception or feeling of a potential threat to continuity in his or her current job
Labour – This refers to workers who come together to offer and pool their skill and expertise towards the production of goods and services in the industry in exchange for income or wage.
Labour Policy -This is the body of{HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law" \o "Law"}, administrative
rulings, and precedents which address the legal rights of, and restrictions on,{HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Working_people" \o "Working people"}and their organizations. As such, it mediates many aspects of the relationship between{HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trade_unions" \o "Trade unions"}, employers and employees (Labour Policy, 2011).
Management – Management as a group refers to all those persons who perform the task of managing an enterprise. Management assumes complete responsibility for organizing, planning, important decision making, directing and motivating people in the workplace. 
Picketing – This occurs when aggrieved workers react and demonstrate in front of their workplace, thereby stalling production or the rendering of services to the public. It is used by trade unions to stop work in an organization that engages in anti-labour activities.
Poor Union Density – This refers to the low number of workers enrolled as members of a trade union.
Workplace Exploitation – The act or process of denying workers their basic right or taking undue
advantage of the vulnerable ones.
Workers Participation – This is a process by which subordinate employees, either individually or collectively, become involved in one or more aspects of organizational decision making within the enterprises in which they work 

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 84 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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