CAUSES OF DEVIANT BEHAVIOR AMONG PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS AS EXPRESSED BY TEACHERS IN OLORUNSOGO LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF OYO STATE

ABSTRACT
This study was a survey that identified the causes and effects of deviant behaviour among secondary school students in Olorunsogo local government of oyo state, Nigeria. Target population of the study comprised of all the 127,124 Senior Secondary Schools Students in Olorunsogo local government of oyo state, Nigeria. However, sample for the study consisted of 2,750 SS 11 Students selected from 12 Secondary Schools across the 4 Education Zones in the State. 1,500 subjects were selected from Male Secondary Schools and 1,250 were selected from Female Secondary Schools in the State. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted in picking subjects for the study. The stratification was based on school type, location and gender. Researchers self designed questionnaire tagged Causes and Effects of Deviant behaviour Questionnaire (CETQ) was the instrument used to collect data for the study. The instrument was divided into three parts (A, B and C). Part A obtained information on biodata of the respondents; part B elicited data on causes of deviant behaviour while part C was on the effects of deviant behaviour among secondary school students in Olorunsogo local government of oyo state, Nigeria. Descriptive statistical techniques of frequency counts and percentages were used to analyze the research questions. The responses were further ranked to give a pictorial view of the respondents rating of each item on the instrument while t-test was used in testing the null-hypotheses at 0.05 confidence level. Results of the study indicated examination phobia, peer influence, single parenting and lack of books as the major causes of deviant behaviour while less value attached to education, lack of parental affection, anxiety and non-familiarity with attendance laws as the minor causes. The study revealed poor academic performance and school dropout as the major effects of deviant behaviour while self hatred and indulgence in drugs were the minor effects. It also revealed that no significant differences exist between school type, location, gender and deviant behaviour among secondary school students. The implications of these findings to counselling were discussed.  


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
            Deviant behaviour is a behaviour portraying a departure from social norms. According to Chamber Dictionary 1st edition, deviant behaviour means to deviate from the norms of particular people, society or school. Such behaviour or activities include crime, drunkenness, indiscipline, drug addiction, bribery and corruption, absenteeism in school and many others.
            Michael S. (2004) defined deviant behaviour as that type of behaviour that is contrary to norms and the rules of the study. Nigeria society today is developing; therefore it requires education system that will ensure her development. Hence the Nigeria education system must stimulate the spirit of patriotism and lay the solid foundation for national and international understanding and cooperation in children. Due to this fact, the education of the youth is very important in order to ensure the citizens to the social and economic development of the country as well as raising the standard of living generally.
            Deviant behaviour is one of the major dishonesties or delinquent behaviours committed by students in contemporary Nigeria irrespective of school type, gender and location. Sara (2014) perceived deviant behaviour as a serious delinquent behaviour characterized by students that often leads to other deviant behaviours. Ukanyiroha (2003) defined deviant behaviour as running away from school or classes without the consent of school authorities. That is the habitual staying away of students from school/class without permission to avoids responsibilities such as assignments, test, examinations and other extra-curricular activities. Odoemelan (2004) also defined deviant behaviour as keeping away from school during school hours with neither the permission of the parents nor school authorities with a view to avoiding punishment, dodging specific functions and neglecting certain lawful school duties.
Robinson (2006) viewed deviant behaviour as the extroverts’ reaction to school problem however, introverts too play deviant behaviour especially at teenage age. Truants are irregular in attending school, a few may choose to come once or twice in a week or may show up in the morning and disappear later while some are persistently absent without any good or acceptable reason either by the parents or school authorities. Hopson (2006) described truants as vagabonds, wretched, lazy, idle persons who shirk or neglect responsibilities and plan to go contrary to the provisions of the school rules such as attending to movies, attending special events, prepare for nights, playing games during school hours but outside school, avoid wearing school uniform, failure to serve punishment, engaging in substance abuse and cultism. Other maladaptive or anti-social behaviours characterized by truants include hyperactivity, disruptive classroom behaviour, bullying, shyness, skipping classes, indiscipline in school, disregard for school authority, poor performance and ultimately becomes a school dropout.
While deviant behaviour is frequently defined as absence from school without prior knowledge of the parents, guardians and/or the school authority but self/personal initiation of the students concern, Baker (2007) expressed that the two dimensions of absenteeism which are missing full days of school and missing some classes should be observed. Baker further stressed that truants missed individual classes and full school days due to a number of integrated problems and that without adequate and proper timely intervention will escalate and metamorphose into serious societal problem overtime. Loober & Faington (2003) and Baker (2007) expressed that some truants have personal issues that make regular school attendance difficult such as chronic physical health problem, family socio-economic challenges like helping the younger siblings or contributing extra income for the up keep of the family. Others could be the social setting itself or academic needs that are not being met.
 A report compiled by the Los Angeles County Department of Education in 1999 as cited by Sara (2014) indicated that chronic absenteeism is the principal predictor of delinquency among youths. Furthermore, a California Deputy Assistant Attorney (2000) who handles cases of deviant behaviour stated that he has ‘never seen a gang member who was not a truant first’ because they fall along the same continuum of behaviours and the obvious end result is dropout of school. Kaupman (2001) added that approximately eighty percent of school dropouts were initially truants and the consequences are detrimental on the individual, parents/guardians and the wider society.
Generally, children copy from those they live with as their role models and families are the first and immediate people children learn and copy from hence serve as agent of socialization and role model for the siblings. Mbuha (2009) reported that few truants received either affection or training from their parents/guardians. Those that came from families where affection and moral training are available tend to acquire good habits and morals while the reverse is the case for those that lack parental affection and moral training. Mora (2007) observed that some parents in Nigeria recognized the importance of sending their younger ones to school but do not see the need to provide learning facilities (text books, exercise books, pen/pencil, mathematical instrument, school bags, uniforms, sandals and socks), pocket money and opportunities  at home to support what the child has learn. Inability to provide learning facilities by parents/guardians will make a child becomes truant for fear of being punished at school or being laughed at by peers. Additionally, Mbuha (2009) explicitly stated that those students whose parents/guardians are unable to pay their school fees in good time tend to skip school/classes to avoid embarrassment from their mates who would continue to mock them for not settling their fees as at when due.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Epstein and Sheldon (2002) expressed that about one third (1/3) to a half (1/2) of the cases of deviant behaviour came from the low income class and single parenting. For economic reasons especially those living with their step mothers have to fetch water, hawk bread, pure water, ‘moimoi’or ‘akamu’ before going to school and late arrival usually attracts penalties. Some students will prefer deviant behaviour to punishment. In other words, they will choose to stay away from school then to go late and get punished. Gumsumi (2006) considered medical and teachers’ attitude as the factors causing students’ deviant behaviour. Students suffering from sickle cell, calcium, diabetes and sight problems or crippled would be skipping school or class hours to be attending hospitals periodically for medical checkup and that most teachers are harsh on students especially the untrained or uncertified teachers who lack teaching methods and find it difficult to comprehend the curriculum and relate the relevant message to students will end up punishing students unnecessarily. Such teachers’ attitude will discourage students and start feeling that the school offers them virtually little or nothing thus cultivates the habit of absenting from school.
Deviant behaviour is one of the delinquent behaviours of non-adult individuals in the society which is judged by the society as bad. Deviant behaviour is in the increase particularly among secondary school students in Olorunsogo local government of oyo state, Nigeria and a nation with uncontrolled cases of delinquents is characterized by unproductive citizens, poor national growth and development. Deviant behaviour could push one out of school (dropout), becomes daring and turn into armed robber or murderer. This act if not checked will get to undesirable level and the society will be losing and living in fears. As a result, there is the need to identify the possible causes and effects of deviant behaviour among secondary school students

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study is designed to identify and determine the:
1.      Causes of deviant behaviour among secondary school students in Olorunsogo local government of oyo state, Nigeria
2.      Causes of deviant behaviour among secondary school students in Olorunsogo local government of oyo state, Nigeria based on school type, gender and school location
3.      Effects of deviant behaviour among secondary school students in Olorunsogo local government of oyo state, Nigeria
4.      Relationship between deviant behaviour school type, gender and school location of secondary school students in Olorunsogo local government of oyo state, Nigeria

RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions were answered in this study:
1.      What are the causes of deviant behaviour among secondary school students in Olorunsogo local government of oyo state, Nigeria?
2.      What are the causes of deviant behaviour among secondary school students in Olorunsogo local government of oyo state, Nigeria by school type?
3.      What are causes of deviant behaviour among secondary school students in Olorunsogo local government of oyo state, Nigeria by gender?
4.      What are the causes of deviant behaviour among secondary school students in Olorunsogo local government of oyo state, Nigeria by school location?
5.      What are the effects of deviant behaviour among secondary school students in Olorunsogo local government of oyo state, Nigeria?


Research Hypotheses
The following null-hypotheses were tested for the study:
Ho1: There is no significant difference between school types and students’ deviant behaviour in Olorunsogo local government of oyo state, Nigeria
Ho2: There is no significant gender difference in students’ deviant behaviour in Olorunsogo local government of oyo state, Nigeria
Ho3: There is no significant difference in school location and students deviant behaviour in Olorunsogo local government of oyo state, Nigeria

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
            This study will be of significance to the principals, headmasters, and teachers in the schools on the upbringing of the student or child because they have correct dealing with the parent because it will help them know the factors that enhance students’ performance in the school whether he or she is doing well and to provide necessary materials needed by the teachers.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY
            This research was initially meant to cover all the secondary schools in Olorunsogo local government of oyo state. But due to factors such as time, and finances, it was limited to selected schools in olorunsogo local government of olorunsogo local government of oyo state.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
Deviant: The act of deviating from the norms of a particular people, society or school
Behaviour: This is the way a person, animal, plant or chemical substance etc behaves or function a particular situation.  
Truancy: the practice of staying away from school without permission
School administration: this is a formalized system which plan, coordinate, organizes, staffing, reporting and evaluating of all matters of the entire school affairs.
 Frustrated: unable to be successful in a particular career.
Academic Performances: The scores an individual obtains in a class test or examination based on his learning experiences in school.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 60 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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