This study sought to address the determinants of work-family conflict among female teachers and how it affects their job satisfaction. The specific objectives of the study were to identify the determinants of work-family conflict; assess the differences between work-family conflict among married and unmarried female teachers; and examine the effect of work-family conflict on satisfaction of female teachers. A total of 250 respondents were used for the study. The lottery method of the simple random sampling was used to select respondents. Questionnaires were used to collect data and correlation, post-hoc Tukey test and regression analysis were ran. The study revealed that financial contributions; work overloads both at home and in school; number of students handled by teachers; as well as the number of family members one caters for determine work-family conflict among female teachers. The study again indicated that work-family conflict among married female teachers was higher than unmarried female teachers. It also emerged that there was a negative relationship between work-family conflict and job satisfaction of female teachers. It is recommended that female teachers must balance their loyalty to both their families and jobs; spouses, family members as well as supervisors must offer the needed support to female teachers to enable them give off their best. Again, financial pressure as well as high dependency on working female teachers must be reduced in order to reduce work-family conflict.

This chapter presents an introduction to the study that seeks to assess the work-family conflict situation among female teachers in the Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abrem Municipality. The chapter looks at the background of the study; the statement of the problem; objectives, research questions, significance of the study, limitations, scope of the study as well as organization of the rest of the study.

Background to the study
Work and family are the most central and prominent role domains for the majority of adults in the world today. Both work and family are significant in determining where we spend our time and the qualitative impact that they have on our lives. This is particularly true for women, who now comprise more than half of the American workforce (US Department of Labor, 2005 as cited in Nii-Dei, Owusu, Sarfo & Ofori-Koranteng, 2013). Since the late 20th century, the pattern of dual earning families has begun to replace the traditional family pattern as the dominant family model, thereby causing a shift in family models (Bruck, Allen, & Spector, 2002). Chopur (2011) has indicated that the traditional family patterns, characterized by the role of men as breadwinners and the role of women as the one taking care of the household and children, have become rare. Suffice to mention that the entrance of women of all ages into the labour force in the second half of the twentieth century has created another period of structural lag (Moen & Yu, 2000).

In this globalized world the tendencies of both men and women play a dual role as parents and workers is getting common. Thus, both family and work become two important things that demand not little time and energy. However, being parents and employees at the same time may lead to disharmony in one of the two roles played. Hennessy (2007) observed that disharmony in roles played can cause problems and conflicts. According to (Grandey, Cordeiro & Crouter, 2005), Work-Family Conflict has duality nature namely work interfere family (WIF) and family interfere work (FIW).

Ansari (2011) found out that although everyone can experience work-family conflict, it is primarily experienced by women. Ansari continued that this happens as women hold two main tasks as wives and mothers which means that they have greater household responsibilities and hold greater roles in the family. Women perform most activities done at home, such as taking care of the house and children and at the same time they have become employees (Chopur, 2011).

Again, WFC can occur in all kinds of professions, especially in professions related to giving services, like teachers. Kaur (2011) teaching has been identified as one of the most stressful professions today and the reasons for that are quite similar to other stressful occupations in the world. This is confirmed by Wafula (2010) that teaching is regarded internationally as one of the professions that possess the highest stress level. The workload of teachers is influenced by several factors including the more formal and difficult procedures in doing their work making them find hard times in planning their own work.

In addition, teachers are not just responsible for improving students’ knowledge but also responsible for social and emotional development of their students, thus increasing the responsibility of the teaching profession (Peeters

Rutte, 2005). Ewing and Smith (2003) reported that between 25 per cent and 40 per cent of beginning teachers in the western countries were leaving teaching or facing burnout syndrome. In addition, some studies report that female teachers who have younger children feel more pressure to play the dual role simultaneously, particularly in helping their own children to learn and in meeting the needs of their children, as well as being good teachers.

A study in the United States on over 1200 nurses found that 92 per cent of workers experience some degree of work-family conflict, with 50 per cent out of the figure experience WFC on weekly basis (Grzywacz, Frone, Brewer,

Kovner, 2006). Problems in work-family balance have been associated with a number of negative consequences. These include outcomes that affect not only employees themselves, but also the workplace in general. Negative effects on individuals include emotional distress and depression, poor physical health, fatigue, and family disruption (Frone, 2003).

Work-family conflict among working women has been investigated by a number of researchers. Some researchers found that work-family conflict is more prevalent in case of married working women (Dasgupta & Das, 2010; Delina & Raya, 2013; Laxmi & Gopinath, 2013; Umer Zia-ur-Rehman, 2013; Dhanabhakyam & Malarvizhi, 2014; Begum & Reddy, 2015). Contrary to the views expressed by some researchers that married women are more stressed-linked than unmarried women, Esson, (2004) found that marital status is not significantly related to work-family conflict. It has been realized that the main factors that lead to work-family conflict among married working women who are teachers are job-related, family-related and individual-related variables (Ogbogu, 2013; Saranya, 2015).

Work-family conflict has been investigated in relation to job satisfaction (Sharma, 2012; Saranya, 2015). A person is pleased with the job when the job enables him/her to meet his/her family/personal commitments and this is called job satisfaction (Robbins, 2005). Life satisfaction results from satisfaction of many aspects of a person’s life like his job and family as they make a major part of a person’s life. Kim and Ling (2001) said that job satisfaction and marital satisfaction results in life satisfaction. Some researchers (Afzal & Farooqi, 2014; Chandel & Kaur, 2015; Fard & Tabar, 2015; Saranya, 2015) have revealed that there is a negative correlation between work-family conflict and job satisfaction.

There are a number of theories associated with WFC. For instance, the separation theory stipulates that working and non-working areas are separated by precise lines and there is no relation between the two (Savci, 1999). So happiness or dissatisfaction in the workplace and out of workplace is separated clearly from each other and does not affect the family life. Similarly, what they experience within the family does not reflect on work life. On the other hand, there are 5 different theories which seek to link work to family and oppose to any separation between the two. These theories are; rational perspective theory; compensation theory; contribution theory; overflow theory and conflict theory.

According to the theory of rational perspective, which is also called rational theory, conflict exists when the time to separate work and family from each other increases (Toraman, 2009). In other words, the theory stipulates that the basic reason for the work-family life conflicts of employees is limited with time (Efeoglu & Ozgen, 2007). For the contribution theory, individuals and organizational pragmatism affect each other’s overall life satisfaction level effectively (Efeoglu & Ozgen, 2007). In other words, there is positive or negative contribution of working and non-working living spaces to each other.

According to the theory of overflow or scatter, the attitudes, behaviors and experiences in a field are transferred to other field with similar manner (Toraman, 2009). Two-way overflow can be seen positively and negatively. If the negative emotions in business life are more dominant than the positive emotions, there is a negative overflow of private life. On the contrary, if the positive emotions are more dominant, the effects on the private life will also be positive (Evans & Bartolome, 1984). The theory of overflow is closely related to the importance of one’s work. Those who engage in great importance to work and career think that working life is very influential on private life (Evans & Bartolome, 1984).

The theory of compensation recognizes that there is an opposing relationship between work and family life. People try to compensate for the lack of space they hear in other areas (Zedeck & Mosier, 1990). The basis of this study is the conflict theory which stipulates that work-family conflict arises when a field’s demands are incompatible with the demands of the other field, and with this non-compliance can affect both the quality of work and family life negatively (Adams, King, & King, 1996).

The Komenda Edina Eguafo Abrem Municipality is one of the Municipality with a high number of female teachers. It also has some level of students’ performance challenges. An attempt is being made per this study to know how work and family interactions affect each other among these female employees and the extent to which the issue affects their job performance and satisfaction.

Statement of the Problem
The issue of Work-Family Conflict has become crucial over the years within every structured organization as a result of the increasing complexity of employee tasks and the increasing demand for employee work hours. Ideally, the concept of WFC requires organizations to effectively integrate employees’ work and family roles such that levels of multiple-role conflict, and the associated stress and job-dissatisfaction, are minimized or avoided (De Bruin & Dupuis, 2004).

The area of work-family conflict is not very much exploited by researchers especially with regards to teachers. The few researchers who have worked on the subject are also not unanimous on the stress that exists within the profession that can cause conflict with family roles. For instance, as Wafula (2010) reveals teaching as internationally regarded as stressful, Cinamon and Rich (2005) reports that some researchers believe teaching profession is not perceived as an important field for investigation because it is considered that those in this field do not experience much WFC. This has made the existence and impact of WFC among teachers doubting.

Again, various theories on the issue are also divided. For instance, the separation theory denotes a no correlation between work and family roles and does not see how one can conflict the other. However, Cinamon and Rich (2005) states that female teachers are not able to separate their professional role and role in family effectively. This gives credence to the conflict theory which asserts a serious relationship between work and family roles and so ascertains the likelihood of one conflicting the other.

The seeming confusion of researchers on work-family conflict in general and the neglect of researchers on the WFC among female teachers calls for more empirical probe into the matter. This study seeks to confirm or disconfirm the theories put out there and other research works. The study therefore intends to find out the determinants of WFC among female teachers, the impact of this on their job output and satisfaction and suggest measures to deal with the problem.

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Item Type: Ghanaian Topic  |  Size: 92 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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