TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION IN THE GHANAIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

ABSTRACT
Clients and other project stakeholders today place much emphasis on attaining quality on their projects, within stipulated time and budget. Total Quality Management (TQM) is counted as an advanced system in the field of quality, making it needful for construction companies to implement this system in order to attain quality on their projects. It is against this background that specific objectives were set to investigate the implementation of TQM by identifying quality management practices that improve stakeholder’s satisfaction, its implementation benefits from stakeholders’ perspectives in the Ghanaian construction industry. Questionnaires employed to fulfil the study objectives were developed based on the information gathered from literature review. In the questionnaire, five point Likert scale was used to gather information on the quality management practices that improve stakeholder satisfaction and its benefits. The data obtained were analyzed using the Relative Importance Index (RII). Analysis of the data revealed that the implementation of Total Quality Management had not taken full effect in Ghana, nonetheless the quality management practices identified that improve stakeholders’ satisfaction comprise employing specialists to carry out key aspects of the project, ensuring the use of quality standards, offering a beneficial and safe working environment, ensuring the construction activities meet the required standards and employing on site testing procedures for materials. However, the implementation will require top management commitment, employee involvement and the organizations ability to adapt the TQM change. The benefits gained from implementing TQM comprise reduction in rework and waste, reduction in construction cycle time, reduction in client’s complaints and savings on cost incurred. The study has made a substantial contribution to the knowledge of TQM in the Ghanaian Construction Industry by throwing more light on the practices that can be adopted towards achieving quality on construction projects.


CHAPTER ONE 
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Workmanship flaws, time as well as cost overrun have been the difficulties faced by the construction industry (Harrington et al., 2012). Key project stakeholders therefore find it essential to attain high quality outcomes on their construction projects making quality management an important component in managing construction projects (Tang & Andrew 2009) as cited by (Gherbal et al., 2012). Construction companies are tasked to constantly create additional value and provide great quality products to appeal to their clients or customers.

The aspect of meeting the aesthetic, functional and legal conditions of projects can be termed as quality. While in construction; quality is meeting the specifications of the project team and regulatory agencies (Asim et al., 2013). Correspondingly, Arditi and Gunaydin (1997) as cited by Asim et al. (2013), are of the opinion that quality in construction is achieved by meeting the client’s needs, design specifications, aesthetic requirements and functional requirements in conformance with appropriate laws, regulations, codes and policies etc.

Studies on quality in the construction industry has been extensively carried out taking into consideration the main parties involved in the project lifecycle such as clients, project donors, projects and construction managers and contractors of building and infrastructure projects (Achterkamp & Vos, 2008; Arditi & Gunaydin, 1997). For quality to be achieved, there is the need to have efficient quality management hence the need for Total Quality Management.

Quality management involves the process of planning, organizing and control with the objective of attaining quality work at reasonable cost whilst ensuring customer approval and enhancing the company’s reputation. The key focus of an organization applying quality management is to formulate customer satisfaction strategies which meet their needs and outlooks while improving the effectiveness of the business (Mazher et al., 2015). Gherbal et al. (2012) identified Total Quality Management as an approach to ensuring the execution of projects are to stakeholder requirements.

Total quality management is defined by Dean and Bowen (1994); Grant et al. (1994) and Shiba et al. (1993) as cited by Colurcio and Mele (2006) as a complete approach based on organization processes and continuous improvement focus by all to satisfy the client and stakeholders requirement. Total Quality Management is a development process for firms encompassing the relationship with suppliers, customers and other interested parties. The role of Total Quality Management to a firm’s effectiveness certainly makes it essential for them to identify and reinforce their strength and to eliminate any weaknesses (Dean & Bowen, 1994; Hackman & Wageman, 1995) as cited by (Colurcio & Mele, 2006). The construction industry has achieved developments in value, productivity and competitiveness by ensuring the achievement of set standards through Total Quality Management (Bakar et al., 2011).

1.2 Problem Statement
The Ghanaian Construction Industry has seen a major growth since the country attained middle-income status in 2010 in addition to its discovery and production of oil in commercial quantities (Wikipedia, 2010). This growth has resulted in increasing global competition and the higher demand for building and civil engineering products. This makes it crucial for the construction industry in Ghana to implement effective quality management practices to address the persistent shortfalls of poor performance, poor quality of works, and lack of innovation and professionalism (Ahadzie, 2009).

Ofori (2012) emphasized that Ghanaian contractors had not been successful in achieving quality on their projects since Total Quality Management principles were not employed.

Construction companies are faced with many management related issues such as planning, effective communication, customer satisfaction, availability of materials and equipment, health and safety awareness, low level of skilled personnel, lack of teamwork, poor organization and scheduling and controlling techniques (Fugar & Agyarkwa-Baah, 2010; Amoah et al., 2011; Ofori, 2012). In agreement to this Imbeah (2012) pointed out that Total Quality Management has not been successfully implemented in Ghana since no such mechanism is in existence for practical implementation of these standards. Asim et al. (2013) mentioned that projects have not been accomplished within budget and on time due to the presence or non- existence of quality management practices.

The issues raised points to the need of Total Quality Management implementation in the Ghanaian construction industry to increase performance, reduce waste and rework and increase customer satisfaction. (Harrington et al., 2012).

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Item Type: Ghanaian Project Material  |  Attribute: 77 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: GH50  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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