THE ROLE OF ISLAMIC STUDIES IN MORAL CONTROL AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN KADUNA STATE

ABSTRACT

The study investigated the effectiveness of the Islamic studies curriculum in curbing moral degeneration among senior secondary school students in Kaduna State. This is done by determining the potentials and effectiveness of Islamic studies; then examining the effectiveness of learning materials and the teaching techniques adopted by the teachers; identifying the problems associated with the teaching of Islamic Studies in schools. To achieve the above, the study employed a multistage random technique to draw a sample size of 120 Islamic Studies teachers and 120 senior secondary school students of Islamic studies. Data was collected using a set of two semi-structured questionnaires and statistically analyzed using frequency distribution, percentages and means. The main sections of both questionnaires were structured on the 5-point Likert scale and analyzed accordingly. The major findings and conclusions that emerge from the study include: (a) the curriculum as it exists today contains adequate learning material and moral lessons for the youths. Though with much emphasis on the theoretical rather than the practical aspects of inculcating moral values; (b) the recommended textbooks contain relevant information needed for effective teaching of Islamic Studies as a subject for knowledge and of  moral instructions. Though the reference materials recommended in the curriculum are often written in Arabic, which teachers that lack competency in the Arabic language find it difficult to effectively consult; (c) teachers are more concerned with students having good examination grades than positive behavioral change; (d) the Schools have adequate teaching aids for effective teaching of the Islamic studies curriculum, but the teaching aids are rarely use in the teaching of the subject; (e) the Schools have enough trained and qualified teachers to handle the Islamic Studies curriculum; (f) the schools did not have vibrant MSS where activities will be organized and conducted to inculcate good moral values; (g) Most Islamic Studies teachers are often not seen as good models by the students. (h) Most teachers are not given the opportunity to attend courses, seminars and workshops. In view of the findings of the study, several recommendations were advanced to enhance the effectiveness of teaching Islamic Studies as a moral subject in secondary schools.

CHAPTER ONE 
Introduction
Background of the Study

In old and recent times, youth have always been the pillar of renaissance and change in any community (al-Banna, n.d). An old adage, he who has youth has the future, goes to show the important role the youth of any nation play in developmental processes in such nations.
The Nigerian society since the mid 1970s has been passing through substantial change in its structure, social institutions and traditional social organization in its quest for modernity and industrialization (Fafunwa, 1991; Okunnu, 2001). These changes have brought about myriads of previously inexperienced social problems resulting from the breakdown of our traditional values and normative standards. Our society is presently hit by a barrage of social problems such as all forms of family disorganization, urbanization and growth of slums, unemployment and poverty, indiscipline, moral decadence and moral bankruptcy, crime and juvenile delinquency (Hamman, 1999; Okunnu, 2001)
The Nigerian nation is going through a period of painful metamorphosis. Our culture has in the recent past been to some extent enriched but largely polluted by foreign ideas that end up destabilizing our society and making it difficult for us to define our identity. The result is confusion in thought and action, which has given rise to a general state of frustration and restlessness, manifested in deviant behaviour among the generality of our people such as armed robbery, drug abuse, large scale fraud, break-up of marriages and consequent lack of parental care for children, which in turn leads to juvenile delinquency of a chronic order. Moral values have been thrown to the wind and Nigerian society now worships wealth. Nigerian women are now advancing in crime with men. What we are now witnessing is breakdown in the family system and moral decadence unparalleled in the history of the nation. Life is insecure. Human beings are being deprived of their lives and property. Our institutions of higher learning have been turned to human slaughter houses where the various cults unleash barbaric assault on each other. Huge chunks of our scarce resources which should have been spent on development are now pumped into provision of security (Okunnu, 2001).
The explosion of ethno religious conflicts in the last decades is another factor. Ethno-religious conflicts were heightened by the economic crises in the country. A number of bloody conflicts with specific ethno-religious character were witnessed in Kaduna State: Kasuwar Magani in 1980; Kafanchan in 1987 and 1991; Zangon Kataf in 1992; and Kaduna twice in 2000 (Hassan, 2000). Apart from immigration and the displacement that results from communal clashes, there is also the psychological trauma that youth suffer after witnessing such violent destruction of life and property (Hersov, 1985).
These decadence and delinquency were compounded by globalization. Globalization has brought about in its wake serious problem for the Muslim adolescents. The more exposed our young men and women are to electronic gadgets, the more they imbibe other cultures, ideas and concepts that do not enhance Islam. The aspects of globalization which are of great concern to the Muslims are: (i) The evil influence of the mass media; (ii) The free access to pornographic literature and materials (iii) The emergence of a permissive society where so many activities previously regarded as illicit are now part of our habits, customs and traditions (Okunnu, 2001).
Youth is a period of complex change. The process of change, development and growth identified during this period include a rapid physical change and development, an intellectual growth and awakening, mental alertness and a search for the truth and meaning of life (Grinder,1978). These emotional developments and upsets result into sudden changes in mood and behaviour. Some studies of human development considered adolescence for both sexes to range from the age of 11 or 12 until about 17 or 18. In Nigeria, ages 12 to 18 are usually young people studying in secondary schools (Blair and Jones, 1982)


The educational subsystem exist to perform certain specialized functions, one of which is the instilling of moral values, and to meet essential needs of the social system. The use of education for the attainment of national objectives is a familiar phenomenon in many countries and has a long history (Makulu,1971). Many nations place faith in education on the strength of the assumption that it changes the individual for the better and make him an effective functioning member of the society. In fact, the revised National Policy on Education recognized education as an instrument per excellence for affecting national development. Thus, Nigeria acknowledged the major social problems with which the society is bedeviled and has found it compelling to use education to combat such problems. Consequently, moral and religious subjects such as Islamic Studies were introduced into the Secondary School’s Curriculum (FGN, 1998).
The Islamic Studies Curriculum has been designed to inculcate true and balanced values in the young Nigerian Muslim at an age when his mental and moral development is at a formative stage; with a view that the inner stability so obtained and the guiding principles so learned will help him or her to stand firm in the midst of the cross-currents of ideas and rapid social change which are a feature of our age (FGN, 1985).


     Statement of the Problem

Adolescence is a turbulent period. It is a period in which habits are formed and deformed; when the youths are governed by sentiments and sexual urges. It is a period overpowered by anxieties and complexes (Chowdhry, 2004).
The background to this study had shown the importance of youth to the growth and development of any society; the need for the youth to be responsible members of the society was alluded to. Moral degeneration among youth, particularly Muslim youth, is manifest in political thuggery, estrangement between youths and elders, prostitution and other forms of sexual pervasion, violence and armed robbery.
The issue which arises for this study asked: How effective is the Islamic Studies curriculum, in terms of students’ behavioral output, in curbing moral degeneration among senior secondary school students? From an instructional standpoint, to what extent where the instructional objectives of the Islamic studies curriculum achieved or achievable?

     

Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of the Islamic studies curriculum in curbing moral degeneration among senior secondary school students in Kaduna State.

The specific objectives of the study are:

(i)                To determine the potentials and effectiveness of the Islamic studies curriculum; content, validity, relevance and emphasis wise, in curbing moral degeneration among senior secondary school students in Kaduna State.
(ii)             To examine the effectiveness of learning materials (recommended textbooks etc.) and teaching techniques adopted by Islamic studies teachers in inculcating good moral values.
(iii)           To determine the availability of qualified teachers of the Islamic studies curriculum in schools.
(iv)           To identify the problems faced by teachers in the effective teaching of the Islamic studies curriculum as a moral subject.
(v)             To ascertain Islamic Studies students assessment of the teaching of Islamic Studies in their schools


              Research Questions

(i)                How effective is the Islamic studies curriculum for senior secondary schools in curbing moral degeneration among senior secondary schools’ students?
(ii)             How effective are the learning materials (recommended textbooks etc.) and teaching techniques employed by Islamic studies teachers in inculcating moral values?
(iii)           What are the qualities of the teachers who operate the Islamic studies curriculum in senior secondary schools?
(iv)           What are the problems faced by teachers in the effective teaching of the Islamic studies curriculum in senior secondary schools?
(v)             How do Islamic Studies students assess the teaching of Islamic Studies in their schools?

              

Significance of the Study

This study is expected to contribute to literary knowledge. Along this line of thinking, it may be considered that such a study is ordinarily important. When viewed in relation to what we have so far discussed in the preceding sections, coupled to the fact that in this era of political brigandry, with major concern on the involvement of youth in political thuggery and violence, this study assumes more than an ordinary status. Furthermore, it is the intention of this study that its findings will contribute, modestly, to the attainment of the lofty goals of the National Policy on Education i.e. inculcating true and balanced values in the young Nigerian with a view that the inner stability so obtained and the guiding principles so learned will help him or her to stand firm in the midst of the cross-currents of ideas and rapid social change which are a feature of our age.

    

Scope/Delimitation of the Study

This study was delimited to collecting and analyzing data that has to do with role of the Islamic studies curriculum in curbing moral degeneration among senior secondary school students in Kaduna State: effectiveness of the Islamic studies curriculum, effectiveness of the learning materials and teaching techniques, availability of qualified teachers of the Islamic studies curriculum and the problems militating against the effective implementation of the Islamic studies curriculum as a moral subject in senior secondary schools.

   

  Assumptions

(i)                The Islamic studies curriculum has the potentials of curbing moral degeneration among senior secondary school students.
(ii)             The learning materials and teaching techniques are relevant in curbing moral degeneration among senior secondary school students.


Chapter One Reference
Al-banna, H. (n.d.). To Youth. Loughborough: Islamic Study Circle.

Blair, G. M. and Jones, S. R. (1982). Psychology of Adolescence for Teachers. Oxford: OUP

Fafunwa, A. B. (1991). History of Education in Nigeria. Ibadan :NPS

Grinder, R. E. (1978). Adolescence. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Hamman, M. (1990). The Changing Nature of Inter-Ethnic Relations and the Development of Inter-Ethnic Conflict in Northern Nigeria. Social Research 5 (3):

Hersov, L. (1985). Emotional Disorder. In Rutter, M. and Hersov, L. (eds):
Child and Adolescence Psychology. Oxford: Blackwell Sci. Publications.

Makulu, H. F. (1971). Educational Development and Nation Building in Independence. London: SCM Press.

Okunnu, L. (2001). Women, Secularism and Democracy: Women Role in the Regeneration of Society. Paper delivered at the Conference on Shari’ah held at the Commenwealth Centre, Commonwealth Institute, Kensington, London.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 83 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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