THE IMPACT OF THE USE OF SMART MOBILE DEVICES ON SLEEP QUALITY AMONG HEALTH TRAINEES AT COLLEGE OF HEALTH AND WELL-BEING, KINTAMPO - GHANA

ABSTRACT
Sleep quality is an essential need of humans especially the young and the old. A good night or good sleep is a great determinant of one‘s ability to function effectively and efficiently during the daytime activities. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the impact of the use of smart mobile devices on sleep quality among health trainees at the College of Health and Well-being, Kintampo. Significantly, it verifies whether the frequent use of smart mobile devices have any impact on sleeping habits that lead to any sleeping disorders. A cross-sectional study design was used to assess the evidence of relationship between smart device usage and sleep duration, subjective sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and sleep quality index, of respondents as well as their demographic characteristics. The internationally accepted tool for assessing sleep quality index from the Pittsburgh University was used to determine the score of respondents‘ sleep quality index. The research was conducted at the College of Health and Well-being, Kintampo among the trainees from different programmes of study comprising a sample of 500 students. Pilot study survey was conducted with 200 trainees from the Techiman Nurses‘ Training College Techiman Ghana. Primary insomnia was the most prevalent sleep disorder among the respondents (52.24%) and this formed the majority of the respondents. There was evidence of a linear by linear relationship between the frequency of the number of smart mobile devices usage and respondents with insomnia. The sleep quality worsens with increasing addiction of smart mobile devices usage.


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION 
1.1 Background to the study
Sleep quality is an essential need of humans especially the young and the old. Good night or good sleep is a great determinant of one‘s ability to function effectively and efficiently during the daytime activities. Prolonged nap loss and related drowsiness and daytime deficiencies in the teenage years are a serious menace to the educational accomplishment, wellbeing, and welfare of our country‘s youth and an imperative public wellbeing concern (Owens, 2015).

Lack of nap quality is a common problematic issue and contributes to a wide variety of sleep disorders in the society and the world as a whole. The public and monetary costs of sleep illnesses are massive (Behar et al., 2013).

Nap/Sleep is an important genetic development for every human being. It is a normal and episodic state of repose during which consciousness of the world is adjourned (Han et al., 2012). Majority of people might have poor knowledge of nap and the variations that transpire as they mature. Nap is not a single step but rather splits into non-rapid eye motion (Non-REM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) or dreaming whiles asleep. Non-rapid eye movement sleep is further subdivided into three stages of sleep. An individual enters into nap through the gateway of light step one nap, which usually lasts only up to five percent of the night. The subsequent stage of light nap is step two nap, which usually incorporates approximately fifty percent of the night. Sleep spindles and K developments on the electroencephalogram (EEG) mark Stage two sleep. People tend to have about twenty to twenty-five percent of the night when young which consists of level three or intensive nap. Level three nap which is the last part of non-rapid eye movement sleep is explained as the presence of minimal occurrence and maximum voltage electroencephalogram waves which is termed as channel or slow waves. People tend to reduce this intensive nap and this attenuation in intensive nap as they grow old is often more noticeable in males than females. People tend to be least easily awakened from Stage three sleep (Vorona, 2009).

Rapid eye movement nap is greatly different from non-rapid eye movement nap and is explained as quick eye motions, loss of chin muscle elasticity, and a low voltage and mixed occurrence electroencephalogram. Unlike intensive nap, the proportion of quick eye movement nap does not change much over time and normally includes twenty to twenty-five of the night. surprisingly, with the exclusion of our eye muscles and our diaphragm, which is the main muscle of respiration, people are paralyzed during rapid eye movement sleep. Generally, it lasts about fifteen minutes to enter step two nap. This time from staying to step two nap which is known as the nap latency to step two. This then takes about ninety to one hundred and ten (90-110) minutes from the beginning of nap until people enter the beginning of rapid eye movement nap. Subsequently, people go through cycle of non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement nap through the night, usually about three to five rapid eye movement time a night for grownups. Most of our intensive nap is focused to the first half of the night and most of our quick eye movement nap occurs during the second half of the nighttime. Rapid eye movement times commonly become prolonged during the night. A prolonged first quick eye movement time can trace a sleep specialist to the likelihood of a depression (Vorona, 2009).

The question of how many hours should people go to sleep? This query prompts some arguments and rely importantly on the age of a person. For instance, senior high school students appear to require about 9.25 hours of nap a nighttime (Vorona, 2009). Grownups comprising of the old tend to need minimal nap than teenagers, with most professionals commending about seven to eight hours of nap a night (Vorona, 2009). Research findings from different studies suggest that the lowest death in grownups is linked with people who have nearly seven hours of sleep a night. Both significantly less sleep and greater sleep amounts are connected with reports of numerous death, for reasons that remain unclear (Vorona, 2009).

Virtually fifty percent of grownups complain of struggle while trying to fall asleep. Poor nap results in high threat of substantial indisposition and death. The reduction seen in the nap of the grownup is mostly as a result of a decline in the aptitude to get desirable sleepiness. Nevertheless, the diminished aptitude is less a factor of aging but more of a cause of other attributes that go with getting old, for instance, therapeutic and mental sickness, rise in the use of curative drugs, developments in the endogenic diurnal clock and an increase in the occurrence of definite nap conditions (Ancoli-israel, 2010).

Insomnia is a serious health problem that affects millions of people. Insomnia is defined as a complaint of difficulty in initiating sleep, difficulty in maintaining sleep, waking up too early, or sleep that is chronically non-restorative or poor in quality (Bidaki et al., 2012).

Smartphone is a term for distinguishing mobile phones with advanced features from basic feature phones. The term ―Smartphone‖ first appeared in 1997, when Ericsson described its GS 88 ―Penelope‖ concepts as a smartphone. This term was basically introduced in the market for an innovative range of portable movable handsets that provided unified services from information service, processing and mobile network sectors such as voice communication, messaging, personal information management applications and wireless communication capability. Modern Smartphone's currently include all the features of a laptop, including web browsing, Wi-Fi, and 3-party apps etc.

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Item Type: Ghanaian Project Material  |  Attribute: 89 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: GH50  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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