QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS AND FORMULATION PROTOCOL FOR RECONSTITUTING TOMATO POWDER INTO PASTE

ABSTRACT
Tomato powder has been developed as a way of mitigating postharvest challenges associated with fresh tomatoes. However, there is limited information on the quality characteristics and formulation protocol for reconstituting tomato powder into paste. This study therefore sought to determine the proximate composition, physicochemical properties (pH, Brix, titratable acidity, colour) and consumer acceptance (scale of 1-7) of reconstituted tomato powder. The solar dried Roma tomato flour were formulated into tomato paste with different proportions of water and binder (cassava starch). A canned commercial tomato paste was used as control. Moisture, crude protein, ash, crude fat, crude fibre and carbohydrate content of the reconstituted powder ranged from 73.01 - 73.93, 0.57 - 0.58, 4.90 - 5.07, 0.46 - 0.62, 13.73 - 17.38 and 2.57 - 7.11, respectively. That of the control was 71.61, 0.30, 3.30, 0.42, 10.94 and 13.44, respectively. pH, ยบ brix, titratable acidity and colour (redness index) of the tomato paste samples ranged from 4.11 - 4.25, 1.95 - 2.25, 0.23 - 0.26 and 10.40 - 13.70 respectively, compared with 4.25, 2.25, 0.23 and 13.7 for the control. The tomato pastes from the reconstituted powder was generally liked by consumers with average score of 5.02 compared to the control with an average score of 6.10. Consumers‟ willingness to use the pastes reconstituted from the tomato powder was also high with an average score of 4.51 compared to the average score of 5.97 for the control. The present findings suggest that the method of processing the tomato powder induced some structural changes, which were reflected in the fibre and carbohydrate content. The consumer assessment further indicates a good market potential for extending the use of tomato powder.


CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Background
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit is a widely grown vegetable crop used in various food products such as sauce, ketchup, squash and jam (Boumendjel et al., 2011). It is a basic ingredient of many meals in Ghana especially, the sauces and stews which accompany most traditional dishes. The fruit can also be consumed raw in salads or used to make juices (Alam et al., 2007; Tambo and Gbemu, 2010). Tomato is rich in essential nutrients such as vitamins and minerals (Bradley, 2003).

Tomato has very high moisture content and water activity which makes it susceptible to microbial growth and senescence, resulting in about 30 % post-harvest losses every year in Ghana (Aidoo et al., 2014). To mitigate these challenges, Owureku et al. (2017) produced consumer-acceptable and shelf-stable tomato powder by use of a solar drier. This drying technique (solar drying) is less expensive and can effectively and efficiently reduce postharvest losses (Anthon et al., 2008). However, the food use of tomato powder is limited; generally being used as an additive (thus, for flavour, taste and colour) during food preparation rather than a main ingredient for soups and stews as desired by the Ghanaian consumer (Lavelli et al., 2001).

Tomato paste on the other hand is highly consumed in Ghana - an average of twenty-five thousand (25,000) tonnes per year, since the product is suitable for the food preparation needs of consumers (Aryeetey, 2006). Thus, due to the absence of infrastructure to produce the paste locally, Ghana is the second largest importer of tomato paste globally (Aryeetey, 2006).

For enhanced utilization of tomato powder, recent studies have proposed its potential reconstitution into other products such as the tomato paste, jams and ketchup (Boumendjel et al., 2011; Owureku et al., 2017). Thus, with the high demand for tomato paste, and limited foreign exchange earnings, investigations on the formulation protocol and quality characteristics of tomato powder reconstituted into paste, could be a cost-effective value addition to the shelf-stable tomato powder for domestic use and particularly, for use by small scale food vendors.

1.2 Problem statement
There is a dearth of information on the quality characteristics and formulation protocol for reconstituting tomato powder into paste.

1.3 Justification
Reconstituting tomato powder into paste is an effective way to explore alternate food uses of the powder and enhance patronage. Such utilisation if promoted, could ultimately contribute to the reduction of post-harvest losses of the crop and importation of tomato paste.

1.4 Objective
To determine the formulation protocol (water-powder-binder ratio) and assess the quality characteristics of paste from reconstituted tomato powder.

Specific Objectives
To determine the water-powder-binder ratio for reconstituting tomato powder into paste.

To determine the proximate content and physicochemical properties (soluble solid, Brix, pH, colour and titratable acidity) of the formulated paste.

To assess the consumer acceptability of the formulated paste.

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Item Type: Ghanaian Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 66 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: GH50  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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