PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS OF AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN IN LOGO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF BENUE STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT
This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of schistosomiasis among school children in Logo Local Government Area of Benue State, between May 2013 and June 2013. A total of 397 urine and stool samples were examined for eggs of Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni respectively. The prevalence for urinary schistosomiasis was 43.6%, while none (0%) was reported for intestinal schistosomiasis. Aluor LGEA Primary School recorded the highest prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in the 10 primary schools that were sampled. The differences observed among the primary schools was not statistically significant (P > 0.05) Differences were observed with respect to gender as males were more infected (51.3%) than females (33.1%), but the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). . Results from the study also revealed that urinary schistosomiasis and other risk factors associated with streams in the study area showed that living close to stream influenced the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis. Children who lived close to streams were more infected than those who do not live close to streams (P < 0.05, OR = 5.33, 95% CI = 2.44-11.63). Pupils who had contact with water that was contaminated with urine and faeces were infected more than those who did not have contact with water that was contaminated with urine and faeces, (P < 0.05, OR = 4.81, 95% CI = 2.36-9.78). Results from the present study show that pupils who had contact with infested water were more likely to have urinary schistosomiasis than those who do not have contact with infested water (P < 0.05, OR = 6.81, 95% CI = 3.00-15.46). Although there was an association between pupils who touched or caught snails in case of searching for edible ones significantly more infected than those who did not touched or caught the edible snails (P < 0.05, OR = 4.89, 95% CI = 3.09-7.76).
Results from the present study show that urinary schistosomiasis is endemic among children in Logo Local Government Area of Benue State where there is poor knowledge on the source of the disease, its etiology as well as the poverty in the study area. This calls for adequate education on the predisposing factors that can influence the spread of schistosomiasis as well as adequate enlightment on personal hygiene so as to curtail the spread of the disease.


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION 
1.0       Background

Schistosomiasis also known as bilharziasis, is to the pathological conditions resulting from infection by digenetic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomiasiscauses chronic ill health and is the major health risk in the rural areas of central China and Egypt and continues to rank high in other developing countries (WHO, 2004). Schistosomiasis is common in tropical countries in Africa, the Caribbean, South America, and Southeast Asia and in the Middle East (Gryseels et al., 2006). There are two forms of schistosomiasis namely urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis. The urinary schistosomiasisis characterized by the presence of blood in the urine, while intestinal schistosomiasis is characterized by blood in stool (WHO, 2004; Wiwamitkit,

2005).Human schistosomiasis are caused by five species of the schistosomes: Schistosoma mansoni is found in parts of South America and the Caribbean, Africa and the Middle East and causes intestinal schistosomiasis; S. haematobium is found in Africa and the Middle East and causes urinary schistosomiasis; S. japonicum in the Far East causes intestinal schistosomiasis; S. intercalatum causes urinary schistosomiasis while S. mekongi causes intestinal schistosomiasis and are found locally in Southeast Asia and Central West Africa (WHO, 2004; Wiwamitkit, 2005).


The intermediate snail host for S. mansoni is Biomphalaria species, Bulinus species for S. haematobium and S. intercalatum, Onchomelania species for S. japonicum and Tricula species for S. mekongi (Gryseels et al., 2006).

Reservoir hosts for the parasites include humans, cats, dogs, cattle, horses, water buffalo, pigs and rodents (Gryseels et al., 2006). However, humans serve as their usual reservoirs (Feldmeier and Poggensee, 1993). The transmission of schistosomiasis takes place only where the fresh water snail intermediate hosts are present and where there is contact between humans and infested water. Those at high risk of infection are people involved in fishing activities, farming, bathing, paddling of canoes, swimming and possibly handling of infected snail host in the case of collecting edible ones (WHO, 2004).

Schistosoma haematobium, the causative agent of urinary schistosomiasis, is associated with damaging the bladder and kidneys resulting to painful urination, abdominal pain as well as passage of blood in the urine. Schistosoma mansoniis responsible for and causes intestinal schistomiasis, damages the intestines and liver, resulting in abdominal pain, fever and rectal bleeding. Schistosomiasis results in anaemia, stunted growth and development in children, chronic debility and sometimes, premature death. 


Among human parasitic diseases, schistosomiasis ranks second to malaria in terms of socio-economic and public health importance in tropical and sub-tropical areas (WHO, 2004). Schistosomiasis is endemic in 74-76 developing countries, infecting more than 200 million people, half of whom live in Africa

(WHO, 2004). They live in rural agricultural and peri-urban areas, and placing more than 600 million at risk (WHO, 2004). This disease is also endemic in Nigeria (Luka et al., 2001; Okpala et al., 2004; Ibidapo et al., 2005; Mbata et al; 2008; Gyuse et al., 2010; Kanwai et al., 2011).



1.1       Statement of the Research Problem

In Logo Local Government Area of Benue State, there is lack of adequate knowledge on the risk factors associated with transmission of schistosomiasis. Apart from hospital records that are not comprehensive, there has been no comprehensive study to our knowledge on the prevelance and risk factors associated with schistosomiasis among school children in Logo Local Government Area of Benue State. Therefore the prevalence status as well as the relationship of the risk factors and the infection is desirable.



1.2       Justification

The outcome of this research will provide baseline data on the prevalence and the risk factors that facilitate the transmission of schistosomiasis in the study area towards understanding the dynamics of transmission and possible intervention.



1.3       Aim

This research is aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors of schistosomiasis among primary school children in Logo Government Area of Benue State.



1.4       Objectives

i. To determine the prevalence of urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis among school children in Logo Local Government Area of Benue State.

ii. To determine the prevalence of schistosomiasis in relation to sex and age of pupils.

iii. To determine the risk factors associated with the prevalence of the disease.


1.5       Hypotheses 
i. Schistosomiasis is not prevalent among school children in Logo Local Government Area of Benue State.

ii. The prevalence of schsitosomiasis is not related to sex and age groups of school pupils. 
iii. The prevalence of schistosomiasis is not influenced by risk factors.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 88 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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