The physicochemical and bacteriological qualities of effluents from WUPA Sewage Treatment Plant, Abuja were determined within the duration of twelve weeks. Grab method of wastewater sampling was used while sampling for the analysis. The sampling and analysis were carried out between May and September, 2015. Samples were collected at the inlet to the treatment plant (SCP 1), outlet of aeration tank (SCP 7C-2), outlet of sedimentation tank (SCP 8C-3), effluent outlet of the treatment plant (SCP 4), 10m upstream and 10m downstream of the receiving water body (River WUPA).
Parameters analyzed included; biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), nitrate as nitrogen (NO3-N), nitrite as nitrogen (NO2-N), ammonium as nitrogen (NH 4-N), dissolved oxygen (DO), chloride (CL-), sulfate (SO4-), faecal coliform (FC), total coliform count (TCC), pH and electrical conductivity (EC). The results of the sample analysis showed that the average removal efficiencies of the treatment plant in terms of BOD5 and COD were 92% and 83%% respectively, while the average removal efficiency for TSS was 89%. The dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate (NO3-N) and nitrite (NO2-N) concentration of the effluent were observed to have increased by an average of 46%, 61% and 72% respectively relative to the inlet values.
The average removal efficiencies for ammonium as N (NH4-N), CL- and SO4- were 58%, 19% and 30% respectively and the bacteriological contamination of the wastewater was averagely removed by 93% and 92% for faecal coliform (FC) and total coliform count (TCC) respectively. The pH and electrical conductivity (EC) were varied by 3% and 11% respectively.
The study revealed that there was no adverse impact of the effluent water on the receiving water body (river WUPA) in terms of physiochemical parameters as the treated effluent from the facility conformed to the specified discharge limits for WHO (2007) and NESREA (2011), but in terms of the bacteriological parameters; values of the total coliform count (TCC) and faecal coliform (FC) were observed to be higher than that of the river at both upstream and downstream sections, which necessitates the development of a maintenance plan for the treatment plant with emphasis on proper maintenance of the unit processes of the treatment plant and UV treating the effluent properly before discharge into the receiving water body.
A simple mathematical model was developed for BOD5 and TSS using mathematical analysis and the relationship obtained are as shown below:
Y = 0.4218x2 – 19.6070x + 126.08; where Y = BOD5 (mg/l), x = Hydraulic retention time (Hr.) and Y = 0.6471x2 – 23.3510x + 146.91; where Y = TSS (mg/l), x = Hydraulic retention time (Hr.).

1.1       Background
The major sources of water for human uses include but are not limited to lakes, rivers, soil moisture and relatively shallow groundwater. Three main factors that are affecting water demand over the past century are Industrial growth, Population growth and Irrigated Agriculture. Over the years water pollution has been of serious concern. The major pollutants are pathogens, nutrients, organic matter, heavy metals, toxic chemicals, silt and salt and suspended solids (Moazzam et al., 2015). Particularly, South Asia and Southeast Asia are facing severe problems of water pollution. Renowned Rivers (Yellow in China, Ganges in India, and Amu and Syr Darya in Central Asia) are top on the list of the world‟s most polluted rivers (Sushil, 2008). The case is similar in the developing nations of the world as most rivers in the urban areas are heavily polluted with domestic sewage, industrial effluents, chemical and solid wastes (UNEP, 2002).

Industries have become integral part of modern society; as a result production of wastes is inevitable in industrial activities (Dipu, et al., 2015). A material becomes waste when it is discarded without expecting to be compensated for its inherent value. Those wastes may pose potential hazard to human and the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported or disposed off or mismanaged (Misra and Pandey, 2004). Surface water bodies in developing countries are under constant threat as a result of indiscriminate discharge of polluted effluents from industrial, domestic and agricultural/sewage activities. (Kambole, 2003). Nigeria not an exception, water pollution is the most serious environmental problem due to disposal of solid and liquid wastes on land and surface water. Abundant as it may
seem, water in its clean state is one of the rarest element in the world (Omole, and Longe, 2008). Like all scarce resources which have regulations guiding their exploitation, ownership, preservation and sustenance, water is protected by a body of laws, policies and regulations in order to prevent abuse FGN (2000). It is the use to which the water is to be put that determines the quality standard that must be imposed, Anyata and Nwaiwu (2002). For instance, water meant for consumption, food and pharmaceutical industrial purposes would have higher standards than water for agricultural production.

The level at which the sewage has to be treated depends on where it will be disposed and treatment standards are higher for disposal into freshwater bodies than that into the sea. However, typically even where sewage treatment plants (STPs) exist, sewage collection networks are inadequate; some portion goes for treatment and the rest flows into drains. Sometimes wastewater stagnates in pools from which it leaches into the groundwater table and contaminates underground aquifers.

The WUPA Sewage Treatment Plant (WSTP) Abuja is an environmentally friendly project which has been designed to ensure that the ambience in the city remains clean and pleasant. It also ensures that the quality of the underground water is improved upon and the streams remain clean as only treated water is discharged back into its natural flow. The concept of the aeration basin sewage treatment plant has been lauded the world-over for its immense health and environmental benefits. It tremendously reduces the risk of epidemics associated with human waste disposal which might be traceable to the release of untreated water back to the stream and rivers.

Monitoring of the environmental parameters of the effluent would allow having at anytime, a precise idea on performance of the wastewater treatment plant and if necessary, appropriate measures may be undertaken to prevent adverse impact on the environment. The obtained result will be very much useful in identification and rectification of operational and maintenance problems. The primary cause for degradation of our water resources is the pollution caused by sewage discharged from cities and towns. Hence, the treatment plant should be routinely checked for their performance and flaws in the treatment units. This is usually carried out based on the removal efficiency of various wastewater characteristics. The WSTP adopt the biological treatment using activated sludge process. The BOD removal and degree of bacteria removal for a properly operating aerobic activated sludge treatment plant are estimated to be 80-95 and 90-95 percent respectively (Punmia et al., 2005).

The completion of the WUPA Sewage Treatment Plant heralded the arrival of a new dawn for the inhabitants of Abuja, capital and seat of government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, the most populous nation in Africa. Construction works on the WUPA sewage treatment plant (WSTP) Abuja started in 2001, blazing the trail for being the largest of its kind in sub-Saharan Africa. Its state of the art, high technology and computerized accessories rank this treatment plant at par with the most modern treatment plants in the world (WSTP Abuja, 2007).

Sludge which is produced as a solid-by product of the sewage treatment process is of agricultural benefit as it could be collected and used as natural fertilizers to boost the growth and production of cash and food crops by the local farmers. The inhabitants of Abuja and the
surrounding communities will continue to be thankful to the government for establishing this sewage processing plant within its domain. It epitomizes the position of government to provide a strong and virile economy by ensuring and safeguarding the environment and health of its citizens, designed to meet the requirements of 700,000 PE (Population Equivalent). The plant can accommodate an Average Dry Weather Inflow of 5,500 cubic meters per hour or 131,250 cubic meters per day. The entire treatment process can be divided into mechanical and biological phases. At no stage of the process is the addition of chemicals required. After the sewage has passed through the first stage of mechanical treatment, it enters the Aeration tanks, followed by the final clarifier where the sludge and water will be separated through a biological process. Figure 1.1 is the process layout of the WUPA treatment plant (WSTP Abuja, 2007). 

The environmental impact of the WSTP and its benefits to the inhabitants of Abuja and its environs symbolizes a new approach to waste management and healthier living by the Nigerian Authorities. The completion of this project is a further testimony to the engineering capabilities of SCC Nigeria Limited and its total commitment to the overall development of Nigeria.

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