MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY (RESISTANCE) EVALUATION OF WEANIMIX

ABSTRACT
Weaning food is a manufactured food designed and marketed for feeding babies and infants less than 12 months of age. It is usually prepared for bottle-feeding or cup-feeding from powder (mixed with water) or liquid (with or without additional water). The nutritional benefits of complementary foods or weaning foods and the sensitivity period in which they are fed on by infants, it is very important to investigate the microbiological safety of the weanimix as well as determination of antibiotic resistance of pathogens that may be isolated against commonly used antibiotics for treatment of infections.
An aggregate of 90 samples were gathered and were allocated unique codes and instantly taken to the laboratory for isolation of Pathogens. From the study, weanimix were found to be highly contaminated with Salmonella, S. aureus and E. coli. And in terms of Antimicrobial activities; some isolates from the weanimix were susceptible to some antibiotics while other isolates were resistant.

It is recommended that Regulatory agencies(FDA, Ghana Health Services, Local District Assemblies) should take up the challenge in helping local food manufactures to produce safe foods especially weanimix.


CHAPTER ONE
1.0. GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background
As per Agostoni et al. (2008), complementary feeding with infant formula begins when breast milk is no longer sufficient to meet the nutritional requirements of infants.

World Health Organization (WHO,2009) said "target go for corresponding encouraging is for the most part taken to be 6 to 23 months of age". Weaning food is a manufactured food designed and marketed for feeding babies and infants less than 12 months of age. It is usually prepared for bottle-feeding or cup-feeding from powder (mixed with water) or liquid (with or without additional water).

In 2003, Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding, distributed by the WHO and UNICEF rehashed that "prepared nourishment items for babies and youthful kids should, when sold or generally dispersed, meet relevant guidelines prescribed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The use of infant formula in less economically developed countries is linked to poorer health outcomes because of the prevalence of unsanitary preparation conditions, including lack of clean water and lack of sanitizing equipment.

In African nations, selective breastfeeding is typically sufficient up to three to four months of age, however after this period it ends up being dynamically deficient to help the nutritious requests of the developing new-born child. Thus, in a weaning procedure there is always the need to introduce soft, easily swallowed foods to supplement the infant‘s feeding early in life.

According to Pickett-Bernard (2006), new-born child recipe as indicated by U.S. Government Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA, 2006) defines infant formula as "a food which purports to be or is represented for special dietary use solely as a food for infants by reason of its simulation of human milk or its suitability as a complete or partial substitute for human milk". In Ghana infant formula like weanimix is the product used in supplementing semi solid food in addition to breast milk during weaning. Public Policy on exclusive breast feeding in Ghana is up to six months before infants diet could be supplemented with infant formula which is usually about the time their first teeth appear. Weaning age is a critical period of childcare. Until an infant is introduced to the family food, breast milk needs to be supplemented when infants reach six (6) months. With the introduction of weaning foods which in many countries are prepared under unhygienic conditions, infants who until then have only consumed breast milk may be exposed to infective doses of foodborne pathogens according to Motaijemi et al. (1993).

1.2. Statement of Problem
Weanmix is a blend of grains; usually roasted Maize, Soya Beans, Millet, Sorghum, Groundnuts. These grains are treated with agro-chemicals and are likely to cause microbiological resistance in the pathogens that may be present on the grains. Its high protein content makes it an ideal product for weaning infants and also for microbial growth once there is contamination of the product. These products are traditionally prepared by individuals based on the availability of particular grain usually in different combinations and packaged for sale without labelling. Hence improper handling of the foods would eventually result in microbial contamination which may likely result in food borne illnesses of the infants being weaned with these food products.

Therefore, given the nutritional benefits of weanimix and sensitivity period in which the infants are fed, it is very important to investigate the microbiological safety of the weanimix as well as determination of antibiotic resistance of pathogens that may be isolated against commonly used antibiotics for treatment of child infections. This will inform decisions regarding the regulation of production of the locally manufactured infant formula in order to safeguard infants‘ health safety.

1.3. Research Questions
The investigation was constituted on the accompanying questions:

Does the infant formula - weanimix sold in the various hospitals for infants under 1 year conform to food safety regulations?

Are these pathogens antimicrobial resistant or have the pathogens developed antibacterial resistance?

1.4. Main Goal
The main objective of the study is to evaluate the microbiological safety of weanimix and its antimicrobial resistance.

1.5. Justification of Project
This study is relevant because the immune system of infants is not fully developed to recover from any infection as a result of microbiological contamination from the weanmix by a resistant strain pathogen. bacteria which could lead to serious health effects.

The study into the microbiological safety of locally produced infant formula-weanimix and its antimicrobial resistance, will inform decisions regarding the production and regulation of these locally manufactured infant formulas. Moreover, this will help to promote production of infant formula according to food safety regulations and help to safeguard infants‘ health safety. Also, the study will add up to the store of knowledge in academia regarding the microbiological safety of locally produced infant formulas and its antimicrobial resistance.

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Item Type: Ghanaian Project Material  |  Attribute: 44 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: GH50  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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