KWATANCIN GININ KALMAR HAUSA DA NA BADANCI

ABSTRACT
The research is designed to highlight some major areas in word formation, between Hausa and Bade languages. It is also based on contrastive analysis, where the similarities and dissimilarities are examined. Both primary and secondary sources of data are used for the research. The primary source includes a series of interviews in some Bade communities, while the secondary source includes lexicographic works in both languages and library materials. The research is limited to derivation and inflectional morphology. It found out that adverbs are not derived to or from any lexical category in Bade language unlike in Hausa. Similarly, the research confirmed that adjectives are not pluralized in Bade. It also confirmed that Hausa has linguistic influence on Bade language, in the uses of ma- bound morpheme, in deriving agential nouns, ma-makan→mámáakáan (seeker); instrumental nouns, ma-saviyan→ másáavéyáan (havesting tools); and locative nouns, ma-cakudan→ mácákúdáan (threshing floor) all from verb stems.

TSAKURE
Wannan binciken mai taken kwatancin ginin kalmar Hausa da na Badanci, ya yi nazarin wuraren da Hausa da Badanci suka yi kama da kuma inda suka bambanta da juna dangane da ginin kalma. Binciken an gina shi ne a kan ra’in nazarin bambancin harsuna (contrastive analysis), inda binciken ya bi hanyoyin tattara bayanai ta nazarin litattafai da qamusoshin harsunan. Sannan an ziyarci qauyuqan Badawa, domin tattauna waxansu kalmomi da suka yi tsauri. Kuma binciken ya gano cewa, a Badanci ba a tsirar d bayanau, kuma ba ya tsirarwa. Haka kuma binciken ya gano cewar ba a jam’inta sifa a Badanci. Haka ma biciken ya gano cewar Hausa ta yi tasiri a kan Badanci dangane da amfani da gudar ma’anar ma- wajen tsirar da ma’aikaci; ma-makan→mámákáan (manemi) da abin aiki; ma-saviya→ másávéyáan (masassabi) da wurin aiki; ma-cakudan→ mácákúdáan (turmin casa ginanne na qasa) duk daga aikatau.

BABI NA XAYA: SHIMFIXA

1.1 Gabatarwa

A wannan babin an yi bayanin yadda aka gudanar da wannan bincike, tare da taqaitaccen tarihin harsunan biyu, Hausa da Badanci, da kuma nuna gidan da suka fito (Iyalin Cadi). Sa’annan babin ya a tavo duk abinda ya wakana a wannan aikin, wato wurin da binciken ya dosa. Haka kuma an yi bayani a kan matsalolin bincike da manufar bincike da dalilan bincike da muhimmancin bincike da farfajiyar bincike da hasashen bincike da hanyoyin tattara bayanai da ra’in binciken da kuma kammalawa.

Masana harsuna irin su Greenberg (1963, 1970) da Schuh (1982, 2003) da Newman (1977, 1990) da Ruhlen (1987) da Blench (2006) sun karkasa harsunan Afirka zuwa manyan rukunai huxu: Afroasiatic da Nilo-Saharan da Niger-kordofanian da kuma Khoisan, dangane da kusancin sautuka da ginin kalma da kuma ginin jumla. Harshen Hausa da Bade, waxanda wannan binciken ya shafa, sun faxo a qarqashin Afro-asiatic ne a reshensa na Cadi. Sai dai ko a rukunin na Cadin ma, sun faxo ne a Yammacin Cadi wanda ke maqwabtaka da Biu-Mandara da Gabashin Cadi da kuma Masa. Sai dai Hausa da Bole da Angas da Ron da wasu harsuna xakinsu xaya ( A), Badanci kuwa da Ngizim da Warji da Boghom da wasu harsuna xakinsu xaya (B) Newman (1977:12).

Harshen Hausa harshe ne daxaxxe, kammalalle kuma yalwatacce wanda yake biya wa Hausawa buqatarsu ta sadarwa da sauran buqatoci na yau da kullum. Harshe ne isasshe wanda kuma babu irin nazarin da masana ba su yi ba a kansa. Harshen Hausa harshe ne mai farin jini wanda a yau akwai mutane fiye da miliyan ashirin waxanda suka iya shi, kuma su na amfani da shi. Harshen Hausa fitaccen harshe ne domin ya watsu a duniya, kuma babu nahiyar da ba a san Hausa ba Amfani (2011:10).

Masana sun nuna cewa “ginin kalma” fanni ne da yake duba sigar kalma da yanayin motsinta da rabe-rabenta. Fannin yana bayyana irin tubalan da ke haxuwa su gina kalma da yadda sigar kalma da ma’anarta ke canzawa, dalilin cuxanyar da tubalan suke yi a tsakaninsu. Hartmann da Stork (1972:146) sun ce nazarin ginin kalma, fanni ne na qirar kalma da fixarta da rabe-rabenta.


“Tsirar kalma” kuma yana nufin samar da wata kalma daga cikin wata, ta hanyar sabunta ajin nahawu, tare da samar da wata ma’ana ta daban (Hartmann da Stork, 1972: 62; da Zarruq, 1980: 84; da Newman, 2000: 5; da Abubakar, 2001: 23; da Jaggar, 2001: 91; da Fagge 2013: 7).

Shi ma “xafi” a matsayinsa na xaya daga cikin hanyoyin ginin kalma, ya kunshi qari da ake yi wa saiwa a gabanta, ko a qarshenta, ko a tsakiyarta. Xafin da aka yi a gaban saiwa, shi ake kira xafa-goshi, wanda aka xafa a qarshen saiwa, shi ake kira xafa-qeya; wanda kuma ake xafawa a tsakiyar saiwa, ana kiransa da xafa-ciki (Abubakar, 2001: 2).

A xaya vangaren kuma, “kumbura” tana nufin qari da ake yi wa kalma, da ba ya canza rukunin nahawunta (Hartmann da Stork, 1972:112; da Abubakar, 2001:115). Hanya ce da ake amfani da saqala xafi, domin fayyace matsayin kalma a nahawu. Tsari ne da ake gane matsayin kalma ta waxannan fuskokin: hanyoyin fayyyace jinsi da nuna nasaba da nuna mallaka da kuma fayyace jam’i (Fagge, 2013:60).

Jinsi na nufin nau’i ne na tantance namiji ko mace, ma’ana a kowace kalmar suna ko sifa, za a tarar tana da jinsin mace ko namiji (Fagge, 2013:60-61).

Haka kuma jinsi kalmar nahawu ce mai fayyace namiji da mace, jinsi na samuwa ne a wajen suna ko wakilin suna ko sifa (Yar’aduwa, 2004:117).

Mamman (2004:12) ya nuna cewar “Qwayar ma’ana ita ce mafi qarancin zance mai ma’ana, wadda ba a iya rage wani abu daga cikinta ba tare da an vata ma’anar ba. Kuma sun kasu kashi biyu, wato ma’ana gama-gari, wadda duk mai jin Hausa zai iya gane abinda ake nufi, da ma’ana ta voye (ta nahawu) wadda sai mai nazarin ilmin nahawu kawai zai gane. Har ila yau Mamman (2004:13) ya nuna cewa akwai qwayar ma’ana sakayau, wadda aka ce tana da ‘yancin kanta, wato za a iya fahimtar ma’anarta ko da ba a haxa ta da wani abu ba, tana da cikakkiyar ma’ana. Ita kuma qwayar ma’ana dogarau an nuna cewa qwayar ma’ana ce wadda ba ta dogara da kanta, sai an xosana ta a saiwa kafin a gane ma’anarta, wato ba ta da ‘yancin kanta ke nan.

Masana ilimin harsuna sun yi nazarce-nazarce da dama a kan ilmin Siffanta Harsuna daban-daban, kamar ilimin furuci da tsarin sauti da ginin jumla da ilimin ma’ana. Sai dai ana ganin ginin kalma bai sami kyakyawar kulawa ba kamar sauran. Masana harshen Hausa da dama sun gudanar da bincike a kan ginin kalma, amma an fi bayyana ma’anarta da kuma nuna yadda ake amfani da tsira da kumbura a ginin kalma. Haka kuma a Badanci, an xan yi ’yan ayyuka game da ginin kalma, sai dai ba su taka kara sun karya ba. Wannan binciken ya yi tsinkaye da waxansu ‘yan bincike-binciken da aka kwatanta ginin kalmar Hausa da na Ingilishi da Larabci, sai dai binciken bai sami ayyuka da aka kwatanta ginin kalmar Badanci da wasu harsuna ba. Domin

haka, wannan binciken ya xauki aniyar fito da wuraren da harshen Hausa da na Badanci suka yi kama ta fuskar ginin kalma da kuma inda suka bambanta.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 141 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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