IMPLICATION OF MENOPAUSAL SYMPTOMS ON WOMEN’S HEALTH IN IBADAN, OYO STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT
Menopause refers to the period of dramatic hormonal changes accompanied by various symptoms which may have implication on women‘s health. This study examined the implication of menopausal symptoms on women’s health in Ibadan, Oyo state Nigeria. A cross sectional descriptive research design was used for this study. Twenty basic schools in Ibadan North Local Government (IBNLG) area of Oyo State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB) were selected using multistage random sampling technique and 300 eligible women were recruited. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and analysed using SPSS software version 21 to produce descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings from the study revealed physical, mental exhaustion and sexual problem as the most common and most severe symptoms experience. Physical and mental exhaustion as well as sexual symptoms were also the highest reported distressful symptoms. However, majority of the study participants reported that the symptoms experiences were not distressful. Role performance and social functioning domain of health was perceived as not good by majority of the study participants. Age and menopausal status had significant relationship with number of symptoms experiences. Finally, the findings of this study have far reaching implication on work performance and productivity as middle aged women working in basic schools under the IBNLG area of Oyo State may not be able to function optimally. Hence, policy makers may find the findings of this study useful in the formulation of policies on increase health expenditure of middle aged women.


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Women’s health deserves particular attention as they are significant members of the society that play key role in the growth and development of every ntion. Numerous studies have been conducted on menopausal symptoms experience across the globe and a few within Nigeria (Fuh, Wang, Lee, Lu & Juang, 2003; Agwu, Umeora & Ejikeme, 2008; Al-Olayet et al., 2010; Gharaibeh, Al-Obeisat & Hattab, 2010; Ande, Omu, Ande & Olagbuji, 2011; Setorglo, Keddey, Agbemafle, Kumordize & Steiner-Aseidu, 2012; Yanikkerem, Oruc Koltan, Tamay & Dikayak, 2012; Mustafa & Sabir, 2012). However, findings obtained from those studies may be inappropriate and unreliable for health professional caring for working midlife women in Ibadan, Oyo state Nigeria due to various geographical variations which may differ from those experienced by women in Nigeria. Also, Armstrong Symptoms Experience Model reveals that examining the symptoms experience could help understand the implication of those experiences on the domains of health (Peterson & Bredow, 2009). Hence, this study investigates the implication of menopausal symptoms on women’s health in Ibadan Oyo state Nigeria.

Background to the Study
Women generally live longer than men but this longevity is not necessarily a reflection of good or healthier life compared to men (WHO, 2009). Women spend one third of their life experiencing various health challenges (WHO, 2009). These unhealthy lives could be traced to the numerous roles they perform in the society which include: economical productivity, procreation, professionals, and other ascribed roles as African women. Women’s health has become an urgent priority for the World Health Organisation. The WHO (2009) classified women within the ages of 45-60 as women outside the reproductive age and women of 60 years of age and beyond as older women.

The middle age period (45-60) in women coincides with the period of dramatic hormonal changes called menopause (Oyediji, Amodun, Atulomah, Thomas & Ojo, 2011). Menopause is a physiological event that all middle age women experience (Ande, Omu, Ande & Olagbuji, 2011). It is also important to note that, menopause, is accompanied by various symptoms (Jack-Ide, Emelifeonwu & Adika, 2014; Oyediji, Amosu, Atulomah, Thomas & Ojo, 2011). The menopause symptom rating scale classified symptoms experience during menopausal transition using 3 main domains which are: somatic, psychological and urogenital domain (Al-Olayet et al., 2010; Lee et al.,2010; Chuni & Sreeramareddy, 2011; Elsabagh & Abd Allah, 2012; da Silvar & D’Andretta Tanaka, 2013; AlQuaiz, Siddiqui, Tayel & Habib, 2014; Chou, Wun & Pang, 2014; Joseph, Nagaraj, Saralaya, Nelliyanil & Jagadish, 2014).

Numerous researchers have revealed that hot flushes and night sweats are the cardinal symptoms of menopause, other symptoms include but are not limited to vaginal dryness, or atrophy and dyspareunia, anxieties, difficulty in concentrating, mood swing, depression, crying spells, irritability, loss of cognitive function evidenced by forgetfulness and increased health risks for several chronic disorders like osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease (Fuh et al., 2003; Agwu et al., 2008; Al-Olayet et al., 2010; Gharaibeh et al., 2010; Ande, wt al., 2011; Setorglo et al., 2012; Yanikkerem et al., 2012; Mustafa & Sabir, 2012).

According to Nisar and Sohoo (2009) the overall health and wellbeing of mid aged women have become a major public health concern around the world. The World Health Organisation (1998) defined health as a complete state of physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of diseases or infirmity. This implies that the measurement of a complete state of health of an individual should not only be limited to the frequency and severity of diseases, but the estimation of the total well being of that individual which includes the physical, psychological (cognitive and emotional), social well being (WHO QOL Group, 1998).

Unfortunately, in addition to the menopausal symptoms experiences middle aged women face, diverse challenges ranging from change in their social roles, the stress of parenting, rebellious or nagging adolescent children, children leaving home and women having to cope with the sole responsibility of caring for the household. Others which include caring for their partner or ageing parents are some of the challenges experienced by middle aged women. These challenges constitute stressors and result in diminished physical and psychological health which could worsen their menopausal symptoms experiences (Rouen, 2009; Kumari, Stafford & Marmot, 2005).

Numerous researches have revealed menopause to be a significant phenomenon that impacts the quality of life in women (Oyediji, Amosu, Atulomah, Thomas & Ojo, 2011; Elsabagh & Abd Allah, 2012; Jack-Ide, Emelifeonwu & Adika, 2014). The World Health Organisation referred to quality of life as an individual perception of their position in life with respect to their goal, expectation, standards, and concerns within the context of culture and beliefs of the society in which they live (WHO QOL Group, 1998; Skevington, Lofty & O’Connell, 2004).

In addition, quality of life of an individual is affected greatly by that individual’s physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs and their relationship to salient features of their environment (WHO QOL Group, 1998). Similarly, Armstrong model of symptom experience also revealed that symptoms experiences have consequences on an individual’s physical functioning, cognitive functioning, emotional health, social functioning and role performance (Peterson & Bredow, 2009). Hence, women’s menopause symptoms experience may have serious implication for their physical, cognitive, emotional, social functioning and role performance.

It is however important to note that menopausal symptoms experiences vary in terms of nature, frequency and severity with different people, different phases of menopausal transition period, support network, working status, physical activity, education level, sources of menopausal knowledge, climate, diet, lifestyle, culture and value system, role expectations, menopausal view and beliefs regarding reproduction and aging (Abedzadeh-Kalarhoudi, Taebi, Sadat & Saberi, 2011; Sternfeld & Dugan, 2011; Elsabagh and Abd Allah, 2012; Jack-Ide, Emelifeonwu & Adika, 2014). Armstrong model of symptom experience also revealed that the characteristics of middle aged women (demographic, individual health and menopausal characteristics) could influence an individual’s symptoms experience and that these symptoms experience could have consequences on the individual’s health status and performance.

Hence, this study made use of the symptom experience of menopausal women a spotlight to determine the implication of menopausal symptoms on the physical, cognitive, emotional, social functioning and role performance domains of women’s health in Oyo state, Nigeria.

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Item Type: Ghanaian Project Material  |  Attribute: 121 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: GH110 ($20)  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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