The study seeks to assess households’ willingness to pay for improved solid waste management services within the Kumasi Metropolis and the amount they are willing to pay. The motive is to ascertain the feasibility and relevance of the polluter-pays-principle being implemented by the Assembly and recommend how it could effectively be done strategically to raise the needed funds to address the challenges of waste in the city. The research gathered data from two main sources namely: secondary and primary sources. The three main techniques employed in gathering the primary data were: preliminary field investigation, questionnaire survey and face-to-face interviews. The contingent valuation method was used to determine willingness to pay. The econometric tools used include the logit and tobit regression models. The determinants of factors influencing WTP for improved waste management services using the logit regression model were identified to be education, Length of stay in the area, House ownership, Distance to dumping sites and Gender. The factors influencing the amount respondents were willingness to pay using the tobit model include Age, Income, Education, Length of stay, House ownership, Bags of waste generated and Distance to dumping sites. It was realized that households are WTP average of GHc8.13 more in addition to the GHc11.00 they currently pay for improved services. It is therefore recommended that the Assembly takes advantage of the citizenry’s believe that waste management is a shared responsibility and not the sole responsibility of the government and get individuals to pay realistic amount in order to raise the needed funds for improved waste management. Again, the Assembly could surcharge the 1st and 2nd class residential areas to pay relatively more and use the excess amount to subsidize the 3rd class residential areas (because they cannot afford).

1.1 Background to the Study
According to UNEP (2005), waste is directly linked to human development, both technologically and socially. The compositions of different wastes have varied over time and location, with industrial development and innovation being directly linked to waste materials. Some components of waste have economical value and can be recycled once correctly recovered.

Humans generate a great deal of waste as a byproduct of their existence, and they always have, as evidence at dumping pits located in or around archaeological sites can attest. Every task, from preparing a meal to manufacturing a computer etc, is accompanied with production of waste material, which cannot be used for other things and needs to be disposed of effectively. If not contained and handled appropriately, waste can balloon into a huge problem, as for example when garbage ends up in the open ocean where it can make animals and birds sick. (Wilson et al, 2006)

Transportation of waste is a major issue, as appropriate disposal sites may be remote. Frequently, subscription pickup services are available, with people paying a flat fee to have their waste picked up and disposed of, and people can also subscribe to specialty services, like medical waste pickup services, or confidential paper shredding and disposal services.

Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial producers. For instance, in some cases management of non-hazardous residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities, while management of hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator. Developing effective waste management strategies is critical for nations all over the world, as many forms of waste can develop into a major problem when they are not handled properly. Numerous firms provide waste management services of a variety of types, and several governments also regulate the waste management industry for safety and efficacy.

According to the US Environmental Protection Agency (2009), historically the amount of wastes generated by human population in the early ages was insignificant mainly due to the low population densities, coupled with the fact there was very little exploitation of natural resources. Common wastes produced during the early ages were mainly ashes and human and biodegradable wastes, and these were released back into the ground locally, with minimal environmental impact.

In Africa, Municipal solid waste management constitutes one of the most crucial health and environmental problems facing governments of African cities. This is because even though these cities are using 20-50 percent of their budget in solid waste management, only 20-80 percent of the waste is collected. The uncollected or illegally dumped wastes constitute a disaster for human health and the environmental degradation. Not only is their quantities increasing but also the variety, both a consequence of increasing urbanization, incomes, and changing consumption habits fuelled by globalization. This scenario places the already-desperate urban councils in a difficult situation especially as they have to develop new strategies to deal with increasing volumes as well as strange varieties of wastes. Poor waste management practices, in particular, widespread dumping of waste in water bodies and uncontrolled dump sites, aggravates the problems of generally low sanitation levels across the African continent.

According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) ((2009), urbanization is on the rise in Africa, and this trend is expected to continue in the future. Of concern is the inability of infrastructure and land use planning methods (including for waste management) to cope with urban growth, (the highest in the world) at 3.5 per cent annually. This is particularly urgent in slum areas, which constitute a big part of many of the cities and towns in Africa. Waste management infrastructure is largely non-existent in rural areas of Africa.

The gap between waste management policy and legislation and actual waste management practices is widening due to perennial capacity constraints and lack of waste management facilities for various waste streams. Access to major investments and acquiring the technical know-how needed to resolve the capacity constraints remain a tall order. Waste generation is expected to increase significantly as a result of industrialization, urbanization and modernization of agriculture in Ghana and for that matter Kumasi. This will further aggravate current capacity constraints in waste management.

Progress has been made in waste management policies and strategies. Biogas and compost production from organic waste fractionation has been widely accepted in Africa as a best practice, and progress is being made in developing and implementing specific projects in various countries. However, the use of economic instruments and implementation of polluter-pays principles in waste management have yet to mature in most African countries (Carlson, 2005).

The single largest implementation challenge for managing waste policies remains creating sufficient capacity for environmentally sound management, including, where appropriate, recovery and recycling of various waste streams in Kumasi. The effort to do this is constrained by access to finance and technical know-how.

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Item Type: Ghanaian Topic  |  Size: 94 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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