HAUSAR YARAN MOTA: NAZARIN MA’ANA DA GININ JUMLA

ABSTRACT
The use of common language by a specific group of people for a specific purpose is an important aspect in sociolinguistics. The conductors‟ are group of people who share specific language among themselves or with their drivers, sometimes with the commuters. The research entitled “Semantic and Syntactic Study of The Language of Bus conductors” ( Hausar Yaran Mota: Nazarin Ma’ana da Ginin Jumla) is a grammatical description of „register‟ among conductors in Zariya metropolis. In order to achieve this, the diction, phrases and sentences created by the conductors were identified and gathered through primary and secondry sources of data collection. The conceptual framework adopted was Lehrer (1969) Field theory. Thus, for this purpose, the Galadanci (1976) descriptive framework was adopted. The analysis is however descriptive. The study observed that new vocabulary, phrases and sentences were formed by the conductors by way of several linguistic devices such as coinage, extensions of meaning, loan shifts, and borrowing from other languages. It was also observed that they attach new meaning to the vocabulary and sentences for particular purposes such as declaration, poking, aggressiveness and praise epithet. Finally, the type of sentences analysed were; simple declarative sentence, compound sentence, subjunctive/ imperative mood and question. The overall implication of the research is that „register‟ provides vocabulary which enriches the Hausa language, and also provides sentences which are analyzable by phrase structure grammar.


TSAKURE
Amfani da nau‟in harshe ga wani rukunin mutane saboda wani dalili na musamman abu ne mai muhimmanci a fagen ilimin walwalar harshe. Yaran mota rukuni ne na mutane da suke amfani da wani nau‟in harshen na musamman a tsakaninsu, ko da Direbobinsu, ko da Fasinjojin da suke mu‟amala da su.

Wanannan nazarin mai taken “ Hausar Yaran Mota: Nazarin Ma‟ana da Ginin Jumla” an siffanta nahawun da yaran mota ke amfani da shi a garin Zariya da kewaye, ta hanyar amfani da manya da ƙananan hanyoyin gudanar da bincike domin a gano kalmimi, da yankin jumloli, da nau‟ukan jumlilin da yaran mota ke amfani da su. An yi amfani da ra‟in binciken fage na Lehrer (1969). Haka kuma anyi amfani da salon siffantawa na Galadanci (1976) a wurin fiɗar jumloli. Haka kuma wannan nazarin ya gano rumbun kalmomin da yaran mota suka samar, da yankin jumloli, da nau‟ukan jumloli ta hanyar ƙirƙira, da faɗaɗa ma‟ana, da gusawar ma‟ana, da aro daga baƙin harsuna. Haka kuma wannan nazarin ya gano cewa jumlolin da yaran mota ke amfani da su na ƙunshe da manufofi da dama waɗanda suka haɗa da bayyana halin da suka tsinci kansu a ciki, da tsokana, da faɗa, da kirari. Haka zalika, nau‟ukan jumlolin da aka feɗe sun haɗa da sassauƙan jumla, da harɗaɗɗiyar jumla, da jumlar umurni, da kuma jumlar tambaya. Daga ƙarshe, wannan nazarin ya gano Hausar yaran mota ta taimaka wa rumbun kalmomin Hausa ta hanyar samar masu sababbin kalmomi da kuma jumlolin da za a iya feɗe su ta hanyar amfani da nahawun li‟irabi.


BABI NA DAYA
GABATARWA
1.1 Shimfiɗa

Yaran mota, wanɗada aka fi sani da karnukan mota, rukuni ne na mutane da ake samu a tasha. Tasha kuwa, babbar matattara ce a ƙasar Hausa, inda mutane da dama musamman matafiya ke mu‟amala da ita. Kasancewar yaran mota muhimmin rukuni ne na jama‟a a ƙasar Hausa, ya sa har aka samu cikin mawaƙan baka na Hausa suna ambaton su, kamar Ɗan Maraya Jos, a cikin waƙarsa ta karen mota ya yi bayanin da ya danganci karen mota. Sai dai Ɗan Maraya fito da ɗabi‟un yaran mota ya yi a cikin waƙar tasa, bai yi bayanin harshensu ba. Ga abin da yake cewa :


Ga gangar malam na baya
Ɓaleri karen mato
Tiƙirƙiƙi mai kunne da tauri
Su Angulu an tsotse da sauri
Kwaɗo an saba da jeri
Ƙadangare an jibge a rana
( Ɗan maraya 1962)

Yaran mota, aikinsu shi ne taimaka wa direban motar haya wajen mu‟amala da fasinja. Wannan nazari, nazari ne da ya danganci ilimin walwalar harshe kuma zai mayar da hankali a kan karin harshen rukuni wanda ya shafi Hausar yaran mota ta fuskar sara a wajen mu‟amala ta sadarwa tsakaninsu da sauran jama‟a.

Sadarwa ta ta‟allaƙa ne a kan wasu abubuwa da suka shafi matsayi, da yanayin zamantakewa, da shekaru. Sadarwa a tsakanin mutane ita ce jagora a wajen zamantakewa ta mutane, kamar yadda Miller (1965) ya nuna:
Duk wani isasshen abin kwatanci dole ya ƙunshi aƙalla abin sadarwa guda biyu, madogarar magana (mai magana) da makarɓar magana (mai sauraro). Tsakanin waɗannan abin da ke haɗa su shi ne magana ko saƙo.
Ita kuwa magana, ana yin ta ne ta hanyar amfani da harshe. Shi kuwa harshe, kamar yadda Brook (1975) ya nuna :
wata ɗabi‟a ce ta ɗan‟Adam wadda yake amfani da ita yau da kullum wajen hulɗa da ɗan‟uwansa.
A duk lokacin da mutum ya buɗe baki ya yi magana da harshe, mai sauraro kan yi hasashen inda mai maganar ya fito, ko kuma matsayin wanda ya yi maganar. Wato mutumin wuri kaza ne yaro ne ko babba. Dangane da wannan, za a iya gane ko mutumin maraya ne ko na karkara, mai ilimin boko ne ko na addinin Musulunci. Haka kuma, za a iya gane sana‟ar mutum da matsayinsa a cikin al‟umma daga yanayin maganarsa. Wato dole ne mai sauraro ya ba mai magana wani matsayi a zuciyarsa ta hanyar kafa hujja ta yadda mai maganar ke amfani da harshe. Wannan yana nuni da cewa a harshe, akan sami kare-karen harshe. Shi kuma karin harshe, “wani nau‟i ne na magana a harshe ba harshe kansa ba” ( Skinner, 1977).
Akwai kare-karen harshe a Hausa iri biyu. Karin harshen nahiya da karin harshen rukuni.

Karin harshen nahiya kamar yadda Zaruƙ da wasu (1990) suka bayyana shi ne:


Karin harshe ne da ake samu a tsakanin manyan garuruwa. Kuma su ne kare-karen harshen da ake samu a sakamakon bambance-bambance da ke tattare da garuruwan.
A taƙaice dai, karin harshen nahiya shi ne wanda yake fayyace ƙungiyar mutane kuma yana nuna wurin da suka fito.

Stockwell (2003:8) ya bayyana karin harshen rukuni da wani nau‟in harshe ne da ya danganci wata sana‟a ko yanayin zama.
Wannan ne ya sa Muhammad (2006:2) ya yi tsokaci a kai. Wato kamar yadda ya bayyana cewa:


Bayan masu sana‟ar sadarwa ma, ai kusan kowace sana‟a da ka sani a duniyar nan tana da irin tata gudummuwar da take iya bayarwa ga harshe, don kuwa ita ce take samar da irin Hausarta ta musamman wadda takan yaɗu ta zama mallakar kowane mai amfani da harshen, sana‟ar nan ta gargajiya ce kamar ƙira ko saƙa ko dai ta zamani irin su kanikanci. Hasali ma dai, duk mai amfani da harshe yana da irin gudummuwar da yake bayarwa wajen raya harshen, don kuwa ko kare ma da ranarsa
Hausawa kan yi amfani da karin harshen rukuni don sadarwa a tsakaninsu. Tushen karin harshen Hausar rukuni da bazuwarsa da bunƙasarsa duk daga karin harshen nahiya ne. Wato karin harshen rukuni da bazar ta nahiya yake taka rawa. Domin duk abin da za a yi tsokaci ya shafi halin zamantakewar wasu mutane ne masu sarrafa harshe iri guda a tsakaninsu.
Hausar yaran mota wata nau‟in Hausa ce da ake samu a tsakanin matasa maza masu gudanar da sana‟ar taya direban motar haya mu‟amala da fasinjoji. Irin wannan Hausar sukan yi amfani da ita ne tsakaninsu , ko tsakaninsu da direbobinsu ko fasinjoji, ko „yan kamasho da nufin sakaya manufar maganarsu ko kuma nuna wani salo a maganarsu wajen mu‟amala da jama‟a. Irin wannan karin harshe na yaran mota, karin harshe ne da ake amfani da shi a lokacin sadarwa don cim ma burin sadarwa ta hanyar aro ko ƙirƙirar kalmomi da ma jumloli da kan ɓoye ko sakaye magana ta ɗauki wata ma‟ana wadda ba ita ce a sarari ba, amma tana da wata ma‟ana daban da ake nufi.

Yaran mota, kamar yadda Muntari (2008) da Zailani (2013) suka bayyana su, su ma wasu rukuni ne na jama‟a a cikin al‟umma ta fuskar sana‟arsu. Jama‟ar da yaran mota ke mu‟amala ta sadarwa da su sun haɗa da direban bas, da fasinja, da masu saye da sayarwa a bakin hanya, da „yan kamasho, sannan yanayin hulɗar da ke haɗa kowane yaran mota da kowannensu iri ɗaya ce. Wannan ne ya sa yaran mota suke da irin nasu salon sarrafa harshen, domin irin mutanen da suke mu‟amala da su iri ɗaya ne, sannan kusan abu ɗaya ke haɗa su. Jinsin yaran mota duk mafiyawanci ɗaya ne, ta fuskar shekarun haihuwarsu ma kusan duk ɗaya ne. Da yawa daga cikin su maza ne da shekarunsu bai wuce shekara goma sha-biyu zuwa shekara talatin ba.

An tsara wannan nazarin babi-babi har zuwa babi biyar. Babi na ɗaya na da kanun gabatarwa. Babi na biyu waiwayen ayyukan da suka gabata. Babi na uku hanyoyin ƙirƙira a zantukan yaran mota. Babi na huɗu jumlolin yaran mota. Babi na biyar kuma taƙaitawa, da kammalawa, da shawarwari.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 128 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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