EFFECTS OF ADDITIVES ON BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM COW DUNG AND CHICKEN DROPPING MIXED WITH DIGITARIA SMUTS II

ABSTRACT
This study was carried out to examine the effects of Single Super Phosphate with Wood ash on the production of biogas from Cow Dung and Chicken Droppings mixed with Digitaria Smuts II. An existing digester design was adopted (3 in 1 floating drums) and fabricated using locally available materials to digest Cow Dung from Kawo Abattoir, Chicken Droppings from Salma Farms and Digitaria Smuts II (Woolly Finger Grass) from NAPRI respectively. The study was carried out in eight (8) identical reactors to enable variation of the catalyst combination and were labelled A1, B1, C1, D1, A2 B2 C2 and D2. The research showed that using SSP and wood ash could reduce the lag phase in anaerobic digestion. The controls A1 and A2 had the longest lag phase of 7.5 and 8.9 days as compared to 5.5 and 7.9 days with (200gSSP/100gWood ash). At the end of the digestion period, there was significant difference in volume of biogas produced across the digesters which ranged from 0.0893m3 (no additives) to 0.1188m3 (200gSSP/100gwood ash) for cow dung, while that of chicken droppings mixed with grass is from 0.0647m3 (no additives) to 0.1088m3 (200gSSP/100gWood ash), indicating 20.6% and 40.6% increment respectively. The Modified Gompertz equation was applied to describe the cumulative biogas generation. The biogas production kinetic constants estimated by the linear regression method using the solver function in Microsoft Excel as well as other characteristics obtained for the eight digesters were 0.0037m3/day 0.0036m3/day 0.0045m3/day, 0.0056m3/day, 0.0025m3/day, 0.0028m3/day, 0.0031m3/day, and 0.0046m3/day for Biogas Production Rate and 0.0893m3, 0.0841m3, 0.0977m3. 0.1188m3, 0.0647m3, 0.0737m3, 0.0808m3 and 0.108 8m3 for Biogas Production Potential. The average temperatures of the digesters recorded were 35.20 0C, 35.30 0C, 35.17 0C, 35.18 0C 35.25 0C, 35.28 0C, 35.30 0C, and 35.40 0C respectively while the average ambient temperature observed during the study was 36 0C which were within the mesophilic range. The results obtain indicated that the additives used influenced biogas production.


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1  Background of Study
Environmental pollution is a major problem in the world today, it affect humans, animals and other forms of living organisms including plants. This pollution is mostly as a result of man activities, either in the process of producing his food, shelter, transportation, or the quest to improve his economy. Thakur (2006), stated that economic growth and heavy consumption of natural resources are responsible for global warming, acid rain and destruction of the ozone layer.

Energy is an essential tool for development. Africa and other developing countries are faced with energy challenge. Less than 10% of the population of 21 Sub-Sahara African countries have access to electricity, Mshandete and Parawira, (2009). These countries however produce tremendous amount of waste which if channeled towards energy production can meet the energy need of the region. In Nigeria for instance, aside from the large amount of waste and manure generation, Adaramola and Ovewola (2011) opined that, the country is endowed with huge resources of conventional energy resources (hydrocarbon) and reasonable amount of renewable energy resources (e.g. hydro, wind, solar and biomass).

The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) annual statistical bulletin 2009 in buttressing these facts revealed that Nigeria proven crude oil reserves and natural gas are 37.2 billion barrels and 5,292 trillion standard cubic meters, respectively. In addition, the estimated reserve of tar sands and proven reserves of coals are about 30 billion barrels of oil equivalent and 639 million tons (with inferred reserves of about 2.75 billion tons), respectively (Adaramola and
Oyewola, 2011). According to (Iwayemi, 2008), the region has biomass reserve of 144 million tons per year

Despite all these abundant energy resources, Nigerian Bureau of Statistics (NBS) revealed that, Nigeria as at 2006 had a total of about 28,900,492 households. 79.6% of these households still depend on wood fuel for cooking as at 2008. In some states like Adamawa, Nasarawa, Zamfara, and Sokoto, there is over 90% dependency on fuel wood (NBS, 2009).

Over dependency on fossil fuel in most part of the urban area is also a major problem, which often results in the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. As human development continues to increase and fossil fuels continue to be depleted, it is undeniable that sustainable, alternative energy sources must replace fossil fuels in order for society to maintain its quality of life (Igboro, 2011).

Energy is central to nearly every major challenge and opportunity the world faces today. Be it for jobs, security, climate change, food production or increasing incomes, access to energy for all is essential SDG (2015). Part of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal is to harness the potential of other sources of energy other than fossil fuel which is clean and sustainable. Sustainable energy is opportunity, it transforms lives, economies and the planet. At the UN conference held in France, December 2015 on climate action, the following were revealed;

i.            One in five people still lacks access to modern electricity

ii.             Three billion people rely on wood coal, charcoal or wood fuel for cooking

iii.             Energy is the dominant contributor to climate change, accounting for around 60 percent of total global greenhouse gas emissions

iv.            Reducing the carbon intensity of energy is a key objective in long term climate goals.

There is a great deal of environmental pressure in many parts of the world to ascertain how livestock and poultry waste can best be handled. These wastes like cow dung and poultry droppings in the absence of appropriate disposal methods can cause adverse environmental and health problems such as pathogen contamination, greenhouse gases, air borne ammonia and odor. Anaerobic digestion has been considered as waste to energy technology, and is widely used in the treatment of different organic wastes, for example, organic fraction of municipal solid waste, sewage, sludge, food waste, animal manure among others. Anaerobic treatment comprises of decomposition of organic material in the absence of oxygen resulting in the production of methane, carbon dioxide, ammonia and traces of other gases.

Biogas refers to a mixture of different gasses produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Agricultural waste, sewage, food waste, municipal waste, plant material and manure are some of the raw materials used to produce biogas. Biogas can be produced by anaerobic digestion with anaerobic bacteria, which digest material inside a closed system, or fermentation of biodegradable materials. Biogas is primarily methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have small amount of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and traces of other gasses. The gasses methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen. This energy released allowed biogas to be used as a fuel for heating or in some cases are used to generate electricity. Typical composition of biogas are; Methane (CH4) 50 – 75%, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 25 – 50%, Nitrogen (N2) 0 – 10%, Hydrogen (H2) 0 – 1%, Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) 0 – 3%, (www.lowimpact.org/factsheetbiogas.pdf, 2012).

Environmental quality has been largely affected as a result of petroleum base fuels. The detrimental consequences of the fossil based fuels and the depleting supplies of crude oil products have prompted and triggered the search for renewable alternative energy.

Biofuel should meet peculiar criteria such as providing net energy gain, positive favorable environmental effect and benefits, be economically cost effective and competitive.


It is important to note that in biogas production, the substrates which are basically waste from municipalities helps in environmental cleanup, it produces lower CO2 emissions compared to fossil fuels. The sources of Anaerobic Digestion can be classified as either industrial waste and waste water, Sewage sludge, Farm waste, Municipal solid waste, or Green waste. (Alfa, 2013).

Recently, large volume of cow dung and chicken dropping generated from feedlot and poultry farming increase annually, most of which are disposed into landfills or are applied to the land without treatment. Anaerobic digestion provides an alternative option for energy recovery and waste treatment.

Over the years, a lot of research has been made to produce gas from various bio degradable materials. In this study, the effect of catalyst on biogas production using cow dung and chicken droppings with grass will be assessed. The effectiveness of SSP (Single Super Phosphate) and Ash to accelerate the rate of digestion to produce biogas in batch operation will be determined.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 101 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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