EFFECT OF NON-PROJECTED VISUALS ON JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN ISLAMIC STUDIES IN DAWAKIN-TOFA, KANO STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT


This  study  investigated  the  ―effect  of  non-projected  visuals  on  the  JSS  Students‘ Performance in Islamic-Studies in Dawakin-Tofa in Kano State, Nigeria.‖ Three objectives, research questions and hypotheses were raised based to guide the study Related literatures were reviewed based on the research topic, and all the authors cited in the literatures were duly acknowledged in the reference. The study adapted quasi- experimental design using pre-test post-test non equivalent control group. Experimental group received experimental treatment using non-projected visual resources while control group received conventional method without the material at all. A sample size of 240 students was selected randomly from a population of 8979 secondary school student from 21 secondary schools in Dawakin Tofa. Using intact class from six schools, 122 experimental and the other 118 were for control group. Islamic Studies Achievement Test developed by the researcher and validated by expert guided in data collection, Research questions were answered using Mean and Standard Deviation while t-test statistic at 0.05 confidence levels was used in testing null hypotheses raised. From the result of findings, it was confirmed that, there is significant difference in the academic performance scores of Islamic Studies Students exposed to non-projected visual resources and those taught the same concept just using conventional method. Subjects in the experimental group perform better than control group. The result obtained further revealed that there is no significant difference in the performance of the subject exposed to non-projected visual resources in the rural and urban area as well as among male and female students. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that the use of non-projected visual resources in teaching Islamic studies in school should be encouraged by Federal Ministry of Education, and State Ministries of Education, through organizing seminars and workshops to teachers on utilization of non-projected visual resources in teaching and to provide non-projected visual materials for teaching Islamic studies particularly in junior Secondary Schools of the Federation among others.

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
The use of educational resources is aimed at maximizing the employment  of these five senses in any communication or teaching-learning situation. This promotes effective understanding of the message that is being communicated. Based on the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004), the policy has the objectives of enhancing learning and improving the competence of teachers and also making learning more meaningful for children. According to the policy, the application of educational technology is to develop and promotes an effective use of innovative materials in the classrooms. This also permits teachers and the learners to interact as human beings in a climate where people control their environment for their own purpose.
There are various types of educational resources that are appropriate for teaching and learning Islamic studies. Scholars have grouped or classified educational resources in various ways. For example, Jibril (2005) classified them into four: projected and non-projected, hardware and software, printed and non-printed and small media and big media. Zubairu (2009) classified them into two: Visual materials and Audio-Visual materials. Abolade (2006) also classified educational resources using sensory modalities. He named his Taxonomy as; audio learning and instructional materials, visual learning and instructional material, audio-visual materials and community resources. In this study therefore, emphasis is placed on the non-projected visuals component is under the visual learning instructional materials of educational resources in teaching and learning Islamic studies based on the following reasons:
Non-projected visual resources are not only locally available, they are also not expensive. They are not only readily available, resourceful and committed teachers and students can readily produce the materials. They elicit the creativity and resourcefulness of both teachers and their students. They do not depend so much on electricity for their operation and utilization by the teachers and students. They make the learner to participate actively in the teaching-learning process. They give greater meaning or visual illustration to rather abstract or complex concepts.

Non-projected visual resources are therefore, used in the teaching and learning process for the following reasons; To concretize the context or what is being thought to the understanding level of the learner. To make what is being thought very real to the learner, and to arouse their curiosity and interest. They make teaching easier and more effective for the learner. They enhance remembrance and reaction on the part of the learner. They enable students acquire experience and knowledge that they would otherwise not have appreciated and understood by mere teachers explanations. They save the teachers‘ time which may be employed usefully in other activities. The resources pleasantly accommodate the different learning behaviors of the learners or their individual differences.
Non-projected visual displays are the backbone of the whole range of the classroom visual materials. Remember the adage that says "no impression without expression". The inexperienced teachers often regard non-projected visuals displays as second rate visual materials in view of the glamour attached to films radio, computer and television.
This visual materials serves allot in the classroom settings. They require no electrical power or light source. They are in various shapes, size and colors. Also they can be easily procure or made by the teacher, and are easily adapted to the requirement of any subject. Finally amendment and alteration of non-projected materials presents fewer difficulties than projected materials. The visual displays include educational boards, chalkboard, notice boards, Formica boards, magnetic boards, the research focuses on the production and the utilization of non-projected visuals especially pictures, diagrams, charts, graphs, maps, flash-cards and boards. This is the most commonly used non-projected visuals displays.
However, Government shall direct its policy towards ensuring that there are equal and adequate educational opportunities at all levels. Government shall strive to eradicate illiteracy; and to this end shall when practicable provides free compulsory and universal primary education, free secondary education, and free university education as well as free adult literacy programmed. It has been found that, only in Kano during the former government which made education free for all, from primary to tertiary levels. Many others state and the federations were not having the attitudes of the free education. The national Policy on women Education, section 6.1.3 submits that: ―for (the) Nigerian women to enjoy full benefits of contemporary living, they require basic education to contribute meaningfully to the development of the country. Government shall in this regard increase girls and women‗s participation in education irrespective of their location and circumstances (Eta 2000).
Therefore, it can be said that, the main focus of government education agenda is to bring about optimal development of its human resources, which, put in another word, is a viable source of human capital. This investment however will not be complete without women education. James Aggrey cited by NCCE (1998). If you educate a man you educate an individual, but if you educate a woman you educate a family, that is a nation. The bane for women education in Nigeria is entrenched in the nation‘s new national policy on education which states that: with regards to women education special efforts will be made by ministry of education and local government authorities in conjunction with ministries of community development social welfare and of information to encourage parents to send their daughters to school (FRN, 1998: 14).
The tacit reference made to women education in the national policy on education is contained in the primary education section of the document. It must be observed here that no further reference was made to the provision of women education in this all important document on education. Nagees (1995) opined that the absence of a policy statement on women education as reflected in the National Policy on Education (NPE), makes the NPE fall short of women expectations and it amounts to a total disregard for that section of the population in this country.
The plight of women, in terms of education is further compounded by the negative attitude of parents toward female education. Some parents are usually reluctant to send their girl child for formal education especially to higher levels like their male counterpart. Another problem closely related to this is the reluctance to acquire western education and misunderstanding on the part of the girls themselves about the values of the acquisition of formal education. In education, equity means equal access to good schooling. According to Ocholi (2002), geography (in term of location) and families‘ relative wealth have been discovered to also affect equity. For example, in Nigeria, in the last few years, the regression (toward male-female education in balance) in basic education is reflected in the fact that the net enrolment rate of girls in primary school is lower than the female literacy rate.
As regards to student‘s academic performance based on location, the research considers the relationship between school location and student academic performance in Islamic studies has been widely reported. The main focus of this sub section is to look into public secondary schools both in urban and rural areas to observe the common differences that are portrayed. Some of the difference include: access to secondary education, performance and socioeconomic status.
The term urban refers to the city and rural is the village or areas outside the city. The differences between urban and rural areas are categorized in terms of economic activities, Occupations, education level, access to in infrastructure, population, politics, nationality and migration and it has concluded that urban areas benefits from all these dimensions (Hu 2003). Urban areas, in other words, have higher levels of economic activities particularly in manufacturing, construction and services; greater access to infrastructure and higher educational levels whereas rural areas are vital in economic activities especially in agriculture and farming but less access to infrastructure and lower educational levels. In terms of school access and performance urban schools are more efficient than rural ones. While urban schools are usually staff with enough well-trained teachers, schools located in remote rural areas often find it difficult to recruit and retain qualified teachers (Zhang 2009). Public urban secondary schools have an advantage of adequate and qualified teachers, more learning material and physical resources, unlike the rural ones. Socio-economic and family status, which is regarded as one of most significant inputs affecting student achievement, measures family income and education level (Walberg, 1991). On the other side urban dwellers enjoy better quality education, occupation, income, and public services, therefore, a higher socioeconomic status.

Recent educational research work had shown that the teacher mode of presentation of various instructional concepts affects student's performance. Bonwell and Eison (1996) affirm that the problem of poor school performance was generally caused by poor method of teaching and the use of teaching materials. A close look at the way Islamic studies subject is taught in Nigerian schools involves the use of the traditional lecture methods approach (Akinsete 2007). Conventional method teaching is the process of transmission knowledge from teacher to students (Rhodes & Bellamy, 1999). Zubairu (2009) pointed out that in most of our schools it was always teacher talk and chalkboard method of instruction. This shows lack of appropriate and adequate application of educational technology that brings about maximum and noticeable effectiveness in teaching and learning process.
The researcher has taught for a number of years in some secondary schools in Dawakin-Tofa had visited a number of secondary schools as a resources person, through these different experiences, the researcher made these observations that most of the teachers in the secondary schools do not properly make use of instructional materials like non projected visual resources in the teaching their students especially Islamic studies subject. This negligence in the effective use of the instructional facilities and materials in teaching and learning Islamic studies by trained and untrained teachers has really affected the performance of students in Dawakin-Tofa junior secondary schools. However, the desire to embark on this research study started from observed problem of poor academic performance of junior secondary schools students in Islamic studies in Dawakin-Tofa junior secondary schools.
It is in the view of the above problems; the researcher intended to find out the solution these problems with regards application teaching aids particularly Non- projected visual resources.

Objectives of the Study 
The following are the objectives of this study:

Examine the effect of non-projected visual resources in learning Islamic Studies on the academic performance of students.

Find out whether differences exist between academic performance of male and female students who are exposed to non-projected visual resources in learning Islamic studies,
Examine the effects of non-projected visual resources in learning Islamic Studies on the academic performance of junior secondary schools students from urban and rural areas.

Research Questions
The study sought to provide answer to the following research questions:

i. What is the difference between the academic performance of students taught with non-projected visuals and those taught without non-projected visual resources in learning Islamic Studies?

ii. What is the difference between the academic performance of male and female students who are exposed to non-projected visual resources used in learning Islamic studies?

iii. What is the difference between the academic performance of students taught with non-projected visual resources located in the urban area and that of those in the rural area in learning Islamic Studies?

Hypotheses
The study is guided based on the following null hypotheses:

i. There is no significant difference between the academic performance of students taught with non-projected visual resources and those students taught without non- projected visual resources in learning Islamic studies.

ii. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of male and female students taught with of non-projected visual resources in learning Islamic studies.

iii. There is no significant difference between the academic performance of students taught with non-projected visual resources in Islamic studies located in urban and rural area, in JSS in Dawakin-Tofa Local Government Area of Kano state.

Basic Assumptions 
The study has the following underlying assumptions:

i. The students in both experimental and control group uses the same Curriculum of Islamic studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Dawakin-Tofa Local Government Area of Kano state.

ii. Its assume that both male and female students are exposed to non-projected visual resources in learning Islamic studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Dawakin-Tofa Local Government Area of Kano state.

iii. It is assume that both students in the urban and rural areas are exposed to non- projected visual resources in learning Islamic studies, in Junior Secondary Schools in Dawakin-Tofa Local Government Area of Kano state.

Significance of the Study 
This study will be useful to students, teachers, parent, and professionals development bodies in education and curriculum planners in the following ways;
The study will benefit the teachers on how to make effective use of non-projected visual resources in their teaching activity. The study will expose the teachers to the use of Non-projected visuals in such a manner that would awaken their interest and enthusiasm.
Students will hopefully benefit from this study in improving their academic performance when instructional materials like non-projected visual resources in teaching and learning of Islamic studies. The study will expose them to the benefits of the use of Non-projected visual resources in the learning of Islamic studies.
The study may also provides very useful information to the ministry of education, government, and other educational authorities and agencies to provides interventions so as to promotes the use of non-projected visuals when teaching Islamic studies and others subjects in general. It will facilitate their decision making process in terms allocation and procurement of Non-projected visual resources for effective teaching and learning in Islamic studies.
The study will also serve as resource materials for those who may wish to embark on similar research work. It will provide them with information which widen their understanding as for the use of Non-projected visual resources is concerned.

Scope of the Study 
This research work is on the effect of non-projected visuals on the JSS students‘ performance in Islamic studies in Dawakin-Tofa in Kano State, Nigeria. It also examine whether differences exist between academic performance of male and female students who are exposed to non-projected visual resources in learning Islamic studies, in Dawakin-Tofa Local Government Junior Secondary Schools in Kano State.

Find out the effects of utilization of non-projected visual resources in learning Islamic studies on academic performance of junior secondary school students from urban and rural areas, in Dawakin-Tofa Local Government Kano State. Conceptually, the study delimited to areas of assessing, Islamic study covering Hajj, its history, pillars, steps and categories or kinds of hajj.

Conventional learning methods were also follows together with the conventional students, classroom instruction that is based on lecturing, recitation and readings assignments. Although these setting may includes pair work and given assignment to the conventional students Islamic studies subject.

For more Islamic Studies Projects Click here
================================================================
Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 63 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
================================================================

Share:

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.

Search for your topic here

See full list of Project Topics under your Department Here!

Featured Post

HOW TO WRITE A RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

A hypothesis is a description of a pattern in nature or an explanation about some real-world phenomenon that can be tested through observ...

Popular Posts