The study sought to examine the existence of the various leadership styles and its impact on the job performance at the various units of the Academic Affairs Directorate of the University of Ghana. Close ended questionnaires were used for the collection of the data. The close ended questionnaires were administered to sixty-one (61) staff members who were selected using the stratified sampling technique from the various Units. Nine (9) of the Unit Heads of the Directorate were also given questionnaires to respond to. Chi square and Spearman rank correlation coefficient tests were used to analyse the effect of leadership styles on job performances at a significant level of 0.05. It was observed that the charismatic, transformational, strategic, and transactional styles of leadership are the main leadership styles that do exist at the Directorate. Though all these leadership styles do exist, the charismatic and transactional styles seemed to be more predominant. The charismatic style of leadership was observed to have much positive impact on job performance in terms of accuracy of work output, and customer service delivery. The transactional style of leadership was also found to help build good teams for easy flow of information, ideas and services thus creating an atmosphere for higher productivity. In view of these findings, it is recommended that both charismatic and transactional styles of leadership should be encouraged and strengthened at the Directorate to enhance job performance.

Background to the Study
Organizational development and survival in the current global market depend on efficient organizational management system.

Ineffective and deficient management systems in organizations result in poor performance. This may be due to the inability of the organizations to adopt the best leadership style which enhances best supervision and monitoring of the human resources within the organization. According to Kotter (1990), management produces predictability, order, and consistency regarding key results which include planning, budgeting, organizing, staffing, controlling, and problem solving.

However, effective execution of management functions often requires leadership. Leadership is said to be a reciprocal relationship between those who choose to lead and those who decide to follow. Leadership produces change and includes establishing direction through visioning, and aligning people with the vision. It also develops strategies, inspires and motivates staff for effective execution. These help the proper functioning of the organization for high level of performance. According to Yoon and Woodley (2010), understanding leadership and the measurement of competency of leaders are key factors contributing to success in organizational development.

We can therefore ascertain that the kind of leadership style that exists in an organization has an impact on job performance. Job performance consists of observable behaviours that people do in their jobs that are relevant to the goals of the organization (Campbell et al., 1990). Job performance is of interest to organizations because of the importance of high productivity in the workplace (Hunter and Hunter, 1984). The study is designed to investigate the effect of leadership style on Job performance at the Academic Affairs Directorate, which is the hub of the University of Ghana, a public tertiary institution in the country.

Statement of the problem
Most institutions especially the public ones more times experience low level of productivity. One of the key factors associated with level of productivity is leadership. We are looking at the problems with the leadership system at the Academic Affairs Directorate. The leadership system of the Academic Affairs Directorate of the University of Ghana seems a little cumbersome. The hierarchy is quite tall with Team Leaders (Unit Heads) having to report to many quarters in the process of discharging their duties. This has resulted in poor supervision on the part of the Team Leaders because they have to go through long processes to get one thing done, and thus always busy to look down. Additionally, coming down the hierarchy to the bottom, there is a relationship gap between Team Leaders and the supporting staff with most of them feeling intimated to interact with their Leaders. This does not enhance good working relationship for increase in productivity.

The leadership system also has been designed in such a way that it does not enhance the use incentives to motivate supporting staff to do more. Most of the supporting staff complains of their effort not being recognized. This is not good enough because not many of the supporting staff members will be willing to go the extra mile to help increase productivity on the grounds that it will not be recognized. Finally, the leadership system is designed in such a way that there is no clarification of what is expected from every unit at each point in time. The units just work with no expected quotas, so both the Team Leaders and supporting staff might not stretch to achieve more.

These issues if they are addressed and corrected will enhance productivity massively. Unfortunately, not much has been done and documented in this area for the Directorate, thus the need to look at it to make some recommendations to help increase job performance.

Purpose of the Study
The tall hierarchal system, the poor supervisory problem, poor working relationship between Team Leaders/Unit Heads and supporting staff, low or poor incentive system to motivate supporting staff and no clarification of expectations/quota system for various units have resulted in low productivity at the Academic Affairs Directorate.

The job performance of some of the Units have not been encouraging, thus the need to look at the various leadership styles and their effect on job performance. The purpose of this study is to examine the various leadership styles and their effect on job performance at the Academic Affairs Directorate of the University of Ghana and make recommendations.

Research Objective
In order to address the research problem raised, a general objective as well as some specific objectives for the study was identified. The general objective was to examine the effect of leadership style on job performance at the Academic Affairs Directorate of the University of Ghana. The specific objectives however were as follows:

To examine the predominant leadership styles that exists in the various units in the Academic Affairs Directorate of the University of Ghana.

To assess how these leadership styles affect job performance in the Academic Affairs Directorate of the University of Ghana

Research Questions
What kind of leadership style exists in the Academic Affairs Directorate of the University of Ghana?

How does leadership style affect job performance in the Academic Affairs Directorate?

Which efficient system can the Directorate adopt to improve the leadership style in the Academic Affairs Directorate of University of Ghana?

Significance of the Study
The research study will help identify some of the lapses in the leadership styles at the Academic Affairs Directorate of the University of Ghana, which has resulted in bad institutional culture and poor management practices. When they are corrected, they will help enhance the performance of the Directorate, thus productivity.

Additionally, the research will be useful to future researchers, students and academicians who wish to look at such a related field of study. It will serve as added literature to existing ones on leadership and organizational performance.

Expected Outcomes
The study will allow heads of the various units in the Academic Affairs Directorate appreciate the dynamism in the approach of leadership style that should be employed to enhance job performance.

It will also allow team members to express their perceptions and sentiment on the impact of how leadership styles in the Academic Affairs Directorate affect their Job performance

The study will serve as a reference to public organization as well as employees to understand the importance of leadership styles on job performance so as to enhance high performance in the organization which includes the University of Ghana specifically the Academic Affairs Directorate

Limitations and Delimitations of the Study

One major limitation of the study is that, the knowledge produced might not be generalized to other people or settings when replicated. Again, the mode of data collection such as the application of questionnaires can influence the study. For instance the mood of the respondents as well as how they understand the items on the questionnaires and circumstances surrounding the time they fill the questionnaire are likely to affect the responses they will give. These phenomena in the researcher's view could affect the findings and validity of the results.

The scope of the study is limited to the University of Ghana, Academic Affairs Directorate and the various functionary units under it. The study is limited to the leadership style that exists in the Academic Affairs Directorate that affect job performance of staff. Generalisation of the result is limited to the effect of the leadership style on Job performance in the Academic Affairs Directorate of the University of Ghana.

Definition of Terms
Academic Affairs Directorate: An operational wing of the University of Ghana that is responsible for keeping student’s records, regulate student’s admissions, forms boards and committees, handle university college affiliations, handle student’s examinations and academic facilitations.

Units/Departments: The seven sections of the Academic Affairs Directorate. They are the Office of the Director, Student’s Records, Admission, Boards and Committees, Affiliations, Examination Unit, and Academic Facilitation.

Director: The overall head of all various unit or departments at the Academic Affairs Directorate of the University of Ghana.

Unit Heads/Team Leaders: The senior members who head any of the department or unit at the Academic Affairs Directorate of the University of Ghana.

Supporting Staff: The senior and junior staff members who work under the unit heads at the various departments at the Academic Affairs Directorate of the University of Ghana

Organization of the Study
This research work is organized into five chapters. The first chapter serves as the introduction and it deals with the background to the study, research problem, purpose of the study and three research questions and research objective the study is expected to answer. Additionally, the chapter discusses the significance of the study, limitations and the delimitations of the study.

The second chapter of the study reviews literature related to the study. These are the theoretical review of related theories on leadership and leadership styles, the relationship between leadership style and job performance, empirical review of related results and gaps identified from previous work and developing conceptual frame work on how the current study intends to address the gaps identified.

The third chapter discusses the research methods adopted. These are; research design, population and study area, sampling procedures and data collection procedures. The administration and retrieval of the data collection instruments used are also stated. The chapter finally, explains the data processing and analysis.

The fourth chapter presents the results and discussions of data on the study.

The result of the findings of the research is presented and discussed thoroughly.

Interpretations are also given to the result of the findings.

The fifth chapter, which is the final chapter of the research work, sums up the results and findings of the study. The chapter states the recommendations based on the findings. Recommendations for further research are also included in this chapter

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Item Type: Ghanaian Topic  |  Size: 75 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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