COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ATTITUDES OF MUSLIMS TOWARD RESOURCE MOBILIZATION AND ISLAMIC ECONOMIC SYSTEM IN GOMBE STATE

ABSTRACT
After the period of the reform that lasts from 1812-1903, the Muslims became uncomfortable with the changes brought about by the colonialist in the economic system. This study observed the level to which the Muslim attitudes were influence by the capitalist ideas of exploitation, extortion, fraudulence, interest and free market.It analyzed closely the concept of social justice, contracts, labour, enterprise and entrepreneur, loans acquisition and usury. Islam maintained that in every aspect of life, there can be only one choice between lawful, and forbidden, and nothing in between. A total number of six hundred (600) respondents formed the sample population selected randomly from five selected local government areas in Gombe state, by using the simple random sampling technique. And the instruments used for the data collection were questionnaire and interview, while frequency and percentage were employed in the analysis of the data collected. The finding strongly confirmed the presence of capitalist influence on Muslim attitudes in their socio-economic activities consciously or subliminally. It revealed that most Muslims found it difficult to restrain themselves from Haram and they failed to observe at every step of their earnings, the distinction between Halal and Haram. In conclusion, there is a necessity for the Muslim leaders (spiritual and temporal) as well as the society at large to re-organize our socio-economic system.


CHAPTER ONE:
INTRODUCTION
1.0       INTRODUCTION
IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE MERCIFUL, THE MOST COMPASSIONATE

Man as a social animal cannot survive in isolation. He needs to interact with other fellow human beings in order to live a happy and comfortable life.

He cannot provide all his needs alone without resorting to others. In this regard man is enjoined to make transactions and dealings with others in just manner.

Allah (Subhanahu Wataalah) says:

Is it they who portion out the mercy of your Lord? It is we who portioned out between them their livelihood in this World, and we raised some of them above others in rank so that some may employ others in their work. But the mercy (paradise) of your Lord (O Muhammad S.A.W) is better than the wealth of this World which they amass. (Q43:32).

Allah (S.W.T) also says:

O you who believe! Eat not your wealth among yourselves in vanity, except be it a trade amongst you by mutual consent…(Q4:29).

He again says:

Be just, that justice is nearer to piety…(Q5:8).


All the above mentioned verses pointed out the position of transaction and contract as a bilateral engagement which is an inevitable part of human life, and should be carried out with full justice and devoid of any form of exploitation, fraudulence, and swindling. In fact all the past Prophets of Allah (S.W.T) engaged in lawful contracts in order to earn their resources in honest and happy living. Prophet Adam (Alaihis-Salam) toiled on earth for sustenance. Dawud (A.S.) was a blacksmith and father to the metallurgical engineering. Prophets Shu’aib and Musa were shepherds. Our noble Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) who is an embodiment of all virtues, has left good legacy in all human endeavour as in trade, commerce and all other forms of contract. He had engaged in trade and commerce on behalf of Sayyidatunah Khadijah (R.A) (Hasan, 1987:49 Vol. 1)

Before the advent of Islam, the Arabs were notable businessmen whose trade was characterized by fraud, exploitation and other forms of cheatings, but Islam brought a lot of reformation and regulation to contract and commercial activity. Thus, Sunusi (2002:2-3) asserted that Islam is a religion that recognizes the need for preserving and sustaining a balance between man’s spiritual and material needs. The companion of the Prophet, Hudhaifah said: “the best among you is not he who abandons this world (in search of) the hereafter, nor he who abandons the hereafter in his quest for this world. But the best among you is he who takes from both”. The Qur’an and Sunnah stress the importance of earning a living and seeking economic empowerment and independence at the level of the individual Muslim and the community at large (Sunusi, 2002:3). Allah (S.W.T) opened the door to the legitimate quest for economic empowerment in several verses of the Qur’an. He says:

Then when the Jumuah prayer is ended, you may disperse through the land and seek the bounties of Allah… (Q62:10).

Allah (S.W.T) also says:

Say: It is He Who made the earth subservient to you (i.e. easy for you to walk on, to live in and to cultivate). So walk in the path thereof and eat of His provisions. (Q67:15).

He again says:

...Allah has made trading lawful, and prohibited usury … (Q2:275)

It is therefore clear that Allah (S.W.T) permits and exhorts Muslim to seek of His wealth and bounties through business, farming, mining, labouring and industry rather than relying on the charity of others.  The Prophet (S.A.W) in this respect said;

For one of you to take his rope and bring a bundle of wood on his back and (sell it, such that Allah protects his personal dignity thereby), is better for him than to ask men, whether or not they give him (Khan, 1976:163:288&289 Bukhari).


Rifa’ah bin Rafi (R.A.) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W) was

asked, which type of earning is the best? He said:

A man’s earning through working with his own hands and every business transaction which is approved (which is Halal and free of cheating etc... (Abbasi, 1983:314:543 vol.1 An-Nawawi).

He also said:

A man will not eat any food at all that is better than what he eats from the work of his hands (i.e. his legitimate reward for his own work) and the Prophet Dawud used to eat from the works of his own hand (Khan, 1976:163:288&289 Bukhari).

Every economic system has its own peculiar features, which form its foundation and from which it can be distinguished and recognized. Modern capitalism, which has emerged due to rapid industrialization facilitated by unprecedented human advancement in science and technology, is based on free market economy, non-intervention or very limited intervention of state in economic affairs, and the principle of interest in their banking industry.

Socialism, which has emerged as a reaction to capitalism believes in total state control of the economy as well as full ownership of means of production by the state. Feudalism stands for ownership of land by few persons or families and makes majority of people tenants or serfs, who work on land either as servants of the landlords or for meager share in the produce of land. Islam on the other hand believes in justice and fairness in the economic field (Sale, 2003: XV-5).

1.1       BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Islam is a religion and a way of life based on the commandments of Allah (S.W.T) as enshrined in the Glorious Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). Every Muslim is under an obligation to fashion his entire life in accordance with the dictates of Allah (S.W.T) in the Qur’an and the Sunnah. He has to observe at every step the distinction between what is right/permissible Halal and what is wrong/forbidden Haram. In the course of earnings and resource mobilization one has to be cautious to restrain from Haram and to seek for Halal.

Abu Hurairah (R.A.) narrated that the Prophet (S.A.W) said: O people, Allah is pure (al-tayyib) and He only accepts that which is pure! Allah has commanded the believers what He had commanded the messengers, for He said: “O Messengers! Eat from the pure foods, and do good deeds, verily, I am aware pf what you do, and He said: ‘O you who believe! Eat from the pure and good foods that we have given you. He then made a mention of a person who travels widely, his hair dishevelled and covered with dust. Stretching his hands towards heaven, (and thus make supplication) saying: O Lord! O Lord! Whereas, his source of food is unlawful, his source of drinks is unlawful, his source of clothes is unlawful, and he is already nourished with what is unlawful.


How  can  then  his  supplication  be  accepted?
(Siddiqi,1978:486:2214 vol.3 Muslim).

This Hadith mentioned the verse of the Qur’an where Allah (S.W.T) says:

O Messengers! Eat of the good foods and do righteous deeds. Verily, I am well acquainted with what you do (Q23:51).

Imam Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (R.A. 1989:101&104 Vol. 2) explained that:

The term Good food denotes those things that are lawful Halal. If one consumes unlawful Haram in the form of earnings or food, or engages in Haram activities, his good deeds will suffer the result. Clearly, the Halal alluded to in the verse includes Halal earnings. Moreover, the command to partake of the ‘good food’ is given before the command to work righteousness, or to do good deeds. As the order of the commands indicates precedence, it should be clear that one’s earnings and then eating of the ‘good foods’ is even more important than one’s doing good deeds.

Similarly, earnings and resource mobilization based on Haram will lead to un-acceptance of all good deeds and supplications as cited above in Qur’an (23:51), and the explanation of al-Ghazali and the Hadith narrated by Abu Hurairah (R.A.)

Where a man makes a long journey, “Appears disheveled and covered with dust, stretching his hands towards the Heaven and saying: ‘O Lord! O Lord! Whereas his source of food is unlawful his source of drink is unlawful, his source of clothes is unlawful and he is already nourished with what is unlawful. How can then his supplication be accepted? (Siddiqi, 1978:486:2214 vol.2 Muslim).

Resource mobilization is an integral part of Islamic economy, in this regard, (Jomo, 1992:1) said:

Some proponents among Ulamah tend to emphasize that economic aspect cannot be divorced from other aspects of human life, and hence, that economic reform is contingent on and consequent of spiritual transformation and commitment. Often, this approach asserts that worldly matters are ultimately determined by human intent. Sacred or otherwise, order or disorder, stability or instability, justice or injustice all seem to be determined by righteousness, or otherwise of human motivation.

Riba, commonly translated to mean: “interest” is strictly forbidden. The Qur’anic verses and Prophetic traditions that outlaw interest are clear and irrefutable. Islam strictly forbids the giving or taking of interest on any loan in any amount.  Interest is defined as a set return on a loan, and as suc implies a profit based on no risk or effort – a principle completely against
Islamic ideals.  Financial profit is as a result of effort and risk or both, and interest seeks to undermine the risk-based nature of trade.

In many instances interest is exploitative – it is typically used as a means of deriving profit from the financially weaker members of the society by a wealthy class in whose hands the lent money is concentrated. To these people, a loan is not a favour done to help others or the society, but is used as a means of oppression and this undermines social cohesion. Interest has led to destruction of empires. Islam encourages investment and loans given as a means of charity. Such loans are given by Muslims with the expectation that they will be paid back. However, the intention behind helping a fellow Muslim in distress is not profit but the pleasure of Allah (S.W.T) (Islam online.net, 2009:1).

Furthermore, there are a number of trade and commercial activities that form the bedrock of resource mobilization acceptable from the Shari’ah point of view, which have encouraged Muslims to engage themselves in wide range lawful trade and commerce. There are also many Prophetic traditions supporting Qur’anic injunctions on trade and commerce. Some verses specifically mentioned trade as (Fadl Allah (S.W.T)) the bounties and favour of Allah (S.W.T). He says:

...Others travelling through the land, seeking of Allah’s bounties through trade... (Q73:20).

In order to conduct a successful trade, Muslims have been asked to undertake long journeys as mentioned in the above verse. Doi, (1983:482-84) said: The messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) himself was engaged in trade on behalf of a lady, Khadijah (R.A) and has encouraged business through his own practice. He once said:

A trustworthy, honest and truthful Muslim businessman will rise up with Prophets, truthfuls and martyrs; on the day of Resurrection. (Abdulbaqi, nd: 724:2139 vol.2 Ibn Majah)

Finally, Islam embodies an essentially labour value, better than one based on subjective preference or marginal utility as in the neoclassical economics. The most common objections that Islam favours commodity exchanges and individual property rights (have been) rebutted by reference to the ‘market socialism’ option, and by emphasizing Islam’s recognition of communal rights and state ownership.

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The impact of colonial imperialism which came with the capitalist system of economy characterized by free market economy, non-intervention of the state, exploitation, fraud, and interest which ouster the already established Islamic economic system in Northern Nigeria by Shehu Usman Danfodio in 1812-1903. (Kani, A. Gandi, K. 1990:28). In this regard, Eyiyere, (1983:113) said: “The peoples’ post independence economic systems still follow that of their former colonial master”. This situation seems to have influenced many Muslims to indulge in such kinds of transaction and contract, with the sole aim to amass wealth in various ways in an encroachment of individual right and property to the detriment of the right of society. This attitude makes some Muslims blindly amassing and earning wealth through any means without considering any Islamic precepts in transactions and dealings, abandoning all spiritual gains for the benefits of here and now.

There is prevailing fraud, and swindling in dealings with one another within the Muslims in markets and in labour sector, where weights and measures are altered, while adulteration became the status-quo. This attitude brought many Muslims into suffering in life due to lack of trust and justice in dealings and transactions. The existence of interest in the resource mobilization and needs satisfying resulted into the financial crises of the individual, industries and the society today. Sani, (2005:20) asserted that: “The recurrence of trade cycles fluctuation in economic activities is explained by the phenomenon of interest and the operation of banking in its present form”. Human labour is necessary for profit and capital accumulation, but exploitation of individual energy by individual and industries became a fashion of the day. With regard to the means of determining minimum wage, scholars of the economic discipline like Ibn Khaldun, Recardo, Karl Marx, Afzal-ur-Rahman, Chaudhry and Usmani debated on the issue. But in its most rudimentary form, wages is not just the concept of money paid to an individual, but rather the tangible amount of value assigned to the human labour.

Moreover, nowadays some Muslims in Gombe State do:

-          Create an economy that is uncomfortable to the society by hoarding goods and money, in order to inflate the market price, or cause the scarcity of commodity.

-          Swears unnecessarily on the prices or services, and commodities to increase the prices.

-          Change the prices of commodities especially brokers who take undue advantage of the unsuspecting ignorant traders, and thereby deceiving them.

-          Queuing for buying a single commodity, thereby increasing the prices to the buyers.

-          Feed livestock with drugged foods and Retaining milk in the udder of an animal to increase the weight, and/or the activeness of an animal to attract higher price than its normal proportionate price.

-          Meet traders outside the market square; to gain undue profit from the merchandise and commodity owners.


1.3       OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This research is aimed to achieve the following objectives:

Ø  Observe the extent to which Muslim attitudes were influenced by the capitalist ideas of exploitation, extortion, free market and interest.

Ø  Critically analyse the lawful and justifiable means of resource mobilization as well as the principles of labour value.

Ø  Analyze closely the concept of social justice, contract, investment, loans acquiring and usury, (As relates to the subject of study).

Ø  Investigate some of the conditions and factors that influence the indulgence of some Muslims into the unlawful contract and business transactions.

Ø  Provide some valuable suggestions and recommendations that could eliminate the basic problems associated with the resources mobilization in a Muslim society and people at large.

1.4       RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This research intends to answer the following questions:

I.             To what extent did the capitalist ideas of exploitation, free market and interest as ways of resource mobilization affected the Muslim communities in Gombe State?


II.                Do the Muslim communities in Gombe State mobilize their human and material resources in a lawful and justifiable manner?

III.             What are the ways of transaction that are recognized within an

Islamic framework?

IV.      What are the values attached to labour by Muslims of Gombe State?

V.                What is the repercussion of interest and hoarding as means of resource mobilization among Muslims in Gombe State?

VI.      What are the general bases of investment in Gombe State?

1.5       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research is very significant to the Muslim society, due to its nature that the data is to be collected from the original source, by observation and interview on the attitude of Muslims in dealings and transactions for the purpose of earnings and resource mobilization, and comparing it with Islamic rules and regulations governing dealings and transactions among Muslims, for their livelihood earnings and resource mobilization. This would enable the Muslims to know and understand that they are required to struggle to earn their lawful livelihood in a right channel and be cautious enough while fulfilling their own needs not to tamper with some one’s right.


Definitely, it would help to inculcate the spirit of Islam in the minds of Muslims towards their dealings and transactions, and regulate public life in such a manner that the society would attain high degree of morality and social justice, by having protection from bad workmanship, fraudulence, extortion, cheating and exploitation.

The findings would yield to the promotion of welfare of the individuals and the community at large, which will lie in safeguarding their faith, life, properties and interest based on complete justice, mercy and wisdom of Islamic system of dealings and transactions.

It will also give a limelight through the Islamic rules and regulations of earning, resource mobilizations. The findings of this study will encourage individuals, governments and non-governmental organizations to participate in partnership investment based on profit and loss sharing. Thus, it would discourage merchants, companies and individuals from creating an economic discomfort to the people by hoarding goods, foodstuff, money, social amenities and other basic necessities. And finally it would make Muslims to be aware of the serious repercussion of interacting with usury in dealings with others; because of the saying of Allah (S.W.T):

And if you do not do it, then take a notice of war from Allah and His Messenger... (Q2:279)


And to inculcate how Islamic system on resource mobilization differed fundamentally from the Western mentality based on materialism, individualism and utilitarianism, as well as to highlight on the equity capital and the profit sharing ratio as the primary determinants of investment.

1.6       SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is supposed to have covered the whole Muslim communities in Nigeria, but is delimited to the Muslim communities in Gombe State as the population, and some local governments will be randomly selected to form the sample of the study. Meanwhile in the field of Islamic economics, the study is delimited only to the bases of the human, material incomes and earnings which imply the business transactions, corporate enterprises and labour value respectively.

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 184 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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