BIJIREWA A WAKOKIN SIYASA: BINCIKE KAN WAKOKIN 1903-2015

ABSTRACT
Poetry, whether oral or written, is a way of disseminating message in a particular way that educates and at times elicits pleasure. For long, Hausa poems are used in propagating political messages be it voters registration or campaigns or the conduct of election itself. The study of resistance in Hausa political poetry has received little attention. By the tradition of Hausa poetic studies, critics normally study theme, style and plot of literary works. Literary analysis on resistance in Hausa political poetry is to some extent a new a phenomenon in Hausa literature. Based on this, some poems written due to the emergence of colonialism and the ones during the first, second, third and fourth republics were studied, in order to understand how people showed their resistance towards leaders and some policies. At the end, it was understood that, in all the history of political dispensation since the time of colonialism to the present political regime, there have been some elements of resistance in most of the Hausa political poems. The work is devided into five chapters. Chapter one consists of general introduction, where the significance of the research, aim and objectives hypothesis and scope and delimitations were discussed. Chapter two constitute literature review which treated works related to the research whether positively or otherwise. While chapter three dealt with resistance poems during colonialism and the one before the advent of full democracy, chapter four is devoted to the analysis of resistance poems in Hausaland after the advent of full democracy as reflected in the poems studied. Chapter five, which is the concluding chapter, discussed the summary of the whole work, and research findings viz, till date there are political poems with some element of resistance, and to this time the 21st century there are resistance poems and most of the poems studied potray political theme with elements of resistance socially, economically and otherwise.

TSAKURE
Wada, walau ta baka ko rubutacciya hanya ce ta isar da sado a bisa wani tsari na musamman domin ilimantarwa da faDakarwa ko kuma nishaDantarwa. An daDe ana amfani da wadar Hausa domin isar da sadonnin siyasa walau na aikin rijistar zabe ko na kamfe ko kuma na yin zaben kansa. Amma, ba kasafai ake samun haka wajen amfani da wadodin Hausa na siyasa domin nazartar bijirewa a cikinsu ba. Bisa al‟ada ta nazarin adabi a harshen Hausa, akan nazarci jigo ne, ko salo, ko kuma zubi da tsari. Nazari domin dodarin gano irin bijirewar da take cikin wadodin siyasa ana iya cewa sabon fage ne a adabin Hausa. An nazarci wadodin da aka yi sakamakon siyasar zuwan Turawan mulkin mallaka dasar Hausa da waDanda aka yi a zamunan siyasar jumhuriya ta farko da ta biyu da ta uku da kuma ta huDu, inda aka yi dodarin fito da yadda mutane suka nuna rashin amincewarsu da ire-iren manufofin aiwatar da mulki a tsarin siyasar dasar Hausa. Binciken ya dunshi babuka biyar, waDanda suke dunshe da gundarin aiki, tare da bayaninsu filla-filla. Babi na Daya ya dunshi shimfiDa ce, inda aka yi bayani a kan dalilin bincike, da manufar bincike, da muradin bincike, sai kuma hasashe, da farfajiyar bincike, da kuma hujjar ci gaba da bincike da sauransu. Babi na biyu ya dunshi waiwayen ayyukan da aka gudanar. Babi na uku ya yi dubi ne akan ire-iren bijirewa cikin wadodin Hausa lokacin mulkin mallaka da kuma zamunan siyasar farko. Babi na huDu ya dunshi wadodin da aka yi sakamakon kafuwar mulkin DimokiraDiyya, inda aka nuna bijirewa tsakanin jam‟iyyun siyasa, da kuma mulkin siyasa. Babi na biyar yana Dauke da naDewa da sakamakon bincike inda aka gano cewa; Har ya zuwa wannan lokaci ana jin Duriyar wadodi na Hausa masu Dauke da bijirewa, Haka kuma a yanzu wato darni na ashirin da Daya ana samun wadodi masu Dauke da bijirewa. Da yawa daga cikin wadodin da aka nazarta suna Dauke da jigo na siyasa mai ratsin bijirewa al‟adu da addini da kuma waDanda suke da dangantaka da tattalin arzidin dasa.

BABI NA DAYA

SHIMFIDA 
1.1 Gabatarwa

Daya daga cikin hanyoyin da dan Adam yake more wa harshensa, shi ne furta kalamai ta sigar waka. Sauran hanyoyin kuma sun hada da wasa da kuma bayani a zube. A kasar Hausa amfani da waka domin isar da sako na addini ko na siyasa ko na wani abin da ya shafi rayuwa ba bakon abu ba ne, musamman bayan zuwan Musulunci a cikin karni na sha tara da na ashirin har ya zuwa yau (Idris 2010:1).

Haka kuma, za a ga cewa idan wani al‟amari ya bullo wa Hausawa sukan yi amfani da waka domin magana a kansa. Dubi dai zamanin Shehu Usmanu Danfodiyo (1754-1817) da zuwan Turawa (1850-1906) da zamanin siyasar farko (1960-1966) da yakin Basasa (1966-1970) da juye-juyen mulki da shigowar mulkin dimokiradiya (1970 zuwa yau), da dai duk wani yanayi da ya taso wa al‟umma kuma ake yin amfani da waka don isar da sako na fadakar da jama‟a. A takaice, ana iya cewa, waka na daya daga cikin hanyoyin da Bahaushe ke bi domin amayar da abin da ke birnin zuciyarsa ga jama‟a. Bugu da kari, waka na daya daga cikin hanyoyin da ake bi domin taskace wasu abubuwan tarihi da kuma al‟adun Gargajiya.

Wannan babi, shimfida ce kan binciken da za a gudanar a kan “Bijirewa A Wakokin Siyasa: Bincike Kan Wakokin 1903-2015.” A kokarin gabatar da aikin, a cikin babi na farko an kawo bayani a kan dalilin bincike, da manufar bincike, sai kuma Muradin bincike wato muradin da aka hango, kuma ake son cim mawa

wannan nazari. Wannan shi ya kai mu ga hasashen da aka yi idan aka gudanar da wannan aiki. Daga hasashe kuma, sai aka yi tsokaci kan Farfajiyar bincike da kuma hujjojin da aka dogara da su don gudanar da wannan bincike. Hanyoyin tattara bayanan binciken sun fada karkashin wannan babi, inda aka fayyace, dalla-dalla, duk wata hanya da aka bi domin ganin cewa haka ta cim ma ruwa. Haka kuma duk dai a karkashin hanyoyin tattara bayanai, an dubi dalilin da ya sa aka zabi wakokin da aka yi amfani da su, da kuma yankunan da wakokin suka fito. A karshe an kawo bayani a kan ra‟in bincike, wato ra‟in da aka dora wannan aiki a kansa.

1.2 Dalilan Bincike

Dalilan da ya jawo hankali ga yin wannan nazari sun hada da:


Babu wani aiki da hannu ya kai kansa da aka yi wanda ya taskace wakokin siyasa ya dubi bijirewa a cikinsu, musamman a matakin karatun digiri na uku. Ana sa ran wannan aiki ya zama wani kammalallen nazari a kan wakokin siyasa wadanda ke kunshe da bijirewa, domin amfanin dalibai da Malamai da duk wani mai sha‟awar nazarin adabi musamman waka.

Kamar kowane bincike da ake yi, yana daga cikin dailan yin wannan aiki zakulo wasu abubuwa masu muhimmanci da ta yiwu ba a sani ba da farko, idan kuwa an sani, watakila ba a gane ba sosai da sosai. Ana fata binciken zai taimaka wajen ci gaban adabi kocankau musamman fagen nazarin waka wanda yake bukatar aiki sosai domin fayyace manufar masu yin ta.


Wani babban dalilin yin wannan bincike shi ne, ya kara iza wasu dalibai iri na su dukufa wajen fadada wannan batu ta hanyar bincike mai zurfi da gabatar da rubuce-rubuce a kansa. Yin haka zai sa a samar wa wakoki masu dauke da bijirewa cikakken gurbi cikin nazarin adabin Hausa.

Domin fito da matsayi da muhimmancin waka wajen habaka mulkin dimokiradiyya.

Ana fatar wannan bincike ya zama mai amfani ga masu nazarin kimiyyar siyasa, domin akwai dangantaka a tsakani. Za a sami jituwa tsakanin fagagen, manazarta adabi su nazarci abubuwan da za su gina al‟umma, masu nazarin kimiyyar siyasa su nazarci abin da ya shafi adabi.

Ana kuma fatar wannan bincike zai zama mai fa‟ida ga manazarta tarihi, wato ta yadda aka sami canji a yanayin siyasar Nijeriya, har ya haifar da wakoki masu dauke da bijirewa shi ma zai shiga cikin tarihin Nijeriya. Wannan zai taimaka wajen adana tarihi.

Manazarta adabi, su ma za su ci gajiyar wannan aiki, don aikin ya tabo wani ginshikin sashe na adabi, wato waka. Ko a cikin rabe-raben adabi, manazartan suna ji da waka, domin a iya cewa, an fi yi mata hidima fiye da sauran dangoginta. Sannan kuma, yadda aka sami cakuduwar nau‟o‟in wakokin Hausa a wuri daya, shi ma wani ci gaban adabi ne.

Yana daga cikin dalilin yin wannan aiki ya zama mai fa‟ida ga hukuma, domin ta irin wadannan nazarce-nazarce ne hukuma za ta san yadda jama‟a ke kallonta,

wato yadda take gudanar da harkokin mulki. Ana kuma sa ran samin canji ta hanyar taimakon ire-iren wadannan bincike.

Ga manazarta al‟ada kuwa, wannan bincike ya zama mai dadi a gare su, yadda aka sami sauyin dabi‟un Hausawa, musamman yadda Hausawa suke yin wakoki suna bijire wa gwamnati, bayan an san Hausawa da kawaici da kunya.

Ana sa ran wannan bincike zai zama jagora ga marubuta masu son wannan fanni da su kara kokari wajen abubuwa da suka danganci siyasa domin inganta mulkin dimokiradiyya a kasa.

Wani dalili na yin wannan aiki shi ne, irin rawar da wakokin da sha‟irai ke takawa wajen wayar da kan jama‟a cikin ruwan sanyi. Yana da muhimmanci a yi nazarin wakokin domin irin gagarumin yakin da suke yi wanda da wuya a sami wata hanya mai fa‟ida irin wannan.

A takaice za a nazarci bijirewa kamar yadda ta fito a cikin wakokin da aka sami sakamakon siyasar mulkin mallaka, da kuma wakokin da aka sami a cikin Jumhuriya da daya zuwa ta uku. Haka kuma za a kalli ire-iren wakokin da aka yi sakamakon irin mulkin da sarakuna suke aiwatarwa. A gaba kuma za a dubi wakokin da aka yi sakamakon dawowar kasar nan mulkin dimokiradiyya, da kuma irin wakokin da aka yi domin yin watsi da yadda shugabanni suke tafiyar da mulkin kasa.

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Item Type: Ph.D Material  |  Attribute: 275 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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