BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE INTEGRATION OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY INTO CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION IN THE KETA MUNICIPALITY

ABSTRACT
It is an undeniable fact that the world is now being ruled by technology. Without IT, our lives in this modern world will be miserable. The purpose of the study was to find out the state of ICT infrastructure in our schools, what teachers believe are the barriers to computer technology use in their classroom instruction and what suggestions they had to offer in order to bridge the barriers. Descriptive survey design was used. Teachers in public JHS in the Keta municipality were used. The sample comprised 270 participants of whom 67 were heads of schools and the rest of them, 203, were classroom teachers. The simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Questionnaire was the main instrument used for data collection for the study. Data collected were analysed using IBM SPSS version 21. Frequencies and percentages were used. The study revealed that infrastructure for ICT was inadequate. Even though a lot of schools sampled had electricity, the number of computers and other ICT tools were insufficient in most schools. Respondents suggested that ICT infrastructure should be supplied to schools and teachers trained to use ICT in their classroom instruction. Parents should provide computers for their wards at home so pupils can use them to do projects and assignments. Provision of ICT infrastructure, training of teachers and provision of home computers for pupils were recommended.


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION 
Background to the Study
Technology has taken over industrialization as a key to development. In the not too distant past, industrialization was the envy of all nations both rich and poor but the excitement has been shifted to computer technology.

The pressures placed on our society to change to an informational and technological economy are clear for all to see. Industries and businesses are hard pressed to stay ahead of the learning curve with regards to information age. It is within this climate that teachers are expected to prepare students to become information “hunters and gatherers”.

The 21st century requires that individuals be technologically literate. Technology invades every aspect of daily life. The internet has been one of the most transformative technologies in history, reshaping business, media, entertainment and society in astonishing ways. Its effect on society is unprecedented.

Information and communication Technology (ICT) includes computers, the internet, and electronic delivery systems such as radio, televisions, and projectors among others and is widely used in today’s education field. Kent and Facer (2004) indicated that school is an important environment in which students participate in a wide range of computer activities. Increasingly, ICT is being applied successfully in instruction, learning and assessment. A number of previous studies have shown that an appropriate use of ICT can raise educational quality and connect learning to real-life situations among them are Lowther, et al (2008); Weert and Tatnall (2005). As Weert and Tatnall (2005) have pointed out, learning is an ongoing lifelong activity where learners change their expectations by seeking knowledge, which departs from traditional approaches. ICT has the potential to satisfy learners. It provides learners the opportunity to collaborate and communicate effectively.

According to Castro, Sanchez and Aliman (2011), exposing our children properly to ICT will therefore prepare them for a lifelong learning as multiple resources are abundant on the internet. Current research has indicated that ICT assists in transforming a teaching environment into a learner-centred one. The Ghana ICT for Accelerated Development (ICT4AD) Policy (2003) developed under the able chairmanship of Prof Clent Dzidonu, shows that the government of Ghana is committed to a comprehensive programme of rapid deployment and utilization of ICT within the Education sector to transform education and by so doing improve the lives of the citizenry. The government acknowledged in this policy document that in order to make appreciable progress in its socio-economic development efforts, substantial resources are needed in the educational sector. It is well spelled out in this document that ICT will play a key role in widening access to education. One of the policy goals in Ministry of Education, ICT in Education Policy (2008 p. 13) is “to enable graduates from Ghanaian educational institutions (formal and non-formal) to confidently and creatively use ICT tools and resources to develop requisite skills and knowledge needed to be active participants in the global knowledge economy by 2015.” We would like to find out if we are on course.

Nationally, the push to integrate computers into our classrooms comes from government business and industries. The government of Ghana, in response to the need to equip our students with computer technology, started supplying laptop computers to schools all over the country. These computers which are vital tools for teaching and learning may be left idle like the tool boxes supplied to schools in the early days of the JSS system.

Children, they say are digital natives. They are born into the technological era and are enthused about it. Schools, for that matter teachers, have to incorporate and integrate computer technology into their classroom instruction so that pupils do not feel to be living in a different world at school when they can play all sorts of games at home on the computer and other mobile devices. We nowadays deal with children of the digital or net generation, that is, the children that are born into a world where breath-taking digital technologies have become commonplace - the internet, smart phones, mobile learning and social networks.

As noted by Trilling and Fadel (2009), four powerful forces are converging and leading us towards new ways of learning for life in the 21st century:

* Knowledge work - increasing demand for knowledge workers and innovators that businesses need to be successful in the knowledge economy of today;

* Thinking tools – new technology, devices and services that comprise a knowledge worker’s equipment;

* Digital lifestyles – different ways of delivering, watching, hearing, entertaining, communicating or solving everyday problems. Thus, new ways to make learning interactive, personalized, collaborative, creative, and innovative are needed to engage net generation children to be actively learning in schools;

Learning research – our recent better understanding of how people learn.

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Item Type: Ghanaian Project Material  |  Attribute: 80 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: GH50  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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