ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER POTENTIAL FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY SCHEME USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) IN EDE NORTH LGA OF OSUN STATE NIGERIA

ABSTRACT
Groundwater serves as a primary source of water supply in rural areas of Ede North Local Government Area (LGA) of Osun State, Nigeria. However, low access to drinking water coupled with pollution due to agricultural practices has been common problems in this LGA.This research was aimed at assessing the groundwater resourcesstatus of Ede North LGAusing Geographic Information System (GIS).
Key hydrological and climatic parameters, most of which were acquired from Landsat 7 (ETM), ASTER were digitalized in GIS environment. The respective parameters were assigned weightages and their attributerangedand ranked with reference to groundwater occurrences or pollution potential. The resulting GIS layers were overlain using overlay function of ArcGIS and further integrated one over the other using GIS add function. Finally the study area was classified into three different groundwater potential zones. Over 82km2out of 112km2of the study area was classified as high and moderately groundwater potential zones. The groundwater of the study area was also assessed quantitatively using Krishna model. The groundwater potential was estimated as 26.8million cubic meters annually.Analysis of groundwater pollution potential indicated that out of total area of the LGA, 27.6% of the area equivalent to 31Km2 is highly vulnerable to groundwater pollution.
The climatic variation of the study area indicated that rainfall and temperature increase at 0.031mm and 0.36oC respectively. The assessment of rural water supply scheme for investment plan and gaps to be filled to meetSustainable Development Goals (SDG)-6on universal coverage to water Supply was performed, the result revealed that 353 numbers of Boreholes and rehabilitation of 15 numbers dysfunctional scheme will be required with total cost of NGN940,332,124.
Generally the result obtained from this research showed that GIS and the models used provide a powerful tool in the assessmentsof groundwater resources for effectiveplanning and management. The study area is viable for rural water supply scheme siting. The amount of groundwater available is sufficient to meet the immediate and remotely domestic water demand of 2.0m3/year and 3.21m3/year respectively withexpected domestic water supply demand average increase rate of 3.43% annually while the public groundwater use rate of 7.48% and 12.0% for 2015 and 2030 respectively. It is therefore recommended that Motorized and hand pump schemes be situated in area demarcated as high and moderate potential respectively while high risk area should be avoided for well siting pending the detail assessment for pollutants identification and remediation measures.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       General Background on the Study

Water supply is threatened by increasing population growth and climate change. Since the last century, the population of the world has increased three times and industrial production has increased 50 times. This means demand for water is increasing and resources with suitable quality are depleting because of urban, agricultural, and industrial uses (Karamouzet al.,2011).

The need of water to human cannot be overstressed. He can survive longer without food than without water. Water has been identified as essential factor for the wellbeing of mankind, vital input to economic development, a basic requirement for the healthy functioning of all the World‟s ecosystems and a critical index for the attainment of other facets of sustainable development.

Due to uneven distribution of rainfall both in time and space, the surface water resources are unevenly distributed and also, its development, operation and maintenance is highlycapital intensive. These have made human to depend on groundwater as a source of drinking water in Nigeria and in particular Ede North Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria.However low access to drinking water supply in the study area has been attributed partly to lack of adequate planning and management apart from low capital investment inwater infrastructure in most part of “abandoned” areas of rural communities. Also, lack of coherent data management structurewhich causes severe impedimentto planning and design which resulted toinefficient, less accurate and consequently many

wastes in the system. In fact most of organizations‟ that implement groundwater development keep borehole data without unification and coordination with the other organizations. Many borehole data are scattered and lost without effective use during their custody (FMWR-JICA, 2014).


Currently, the water supply -related data/information such as schemes types, location/geographic coordinate, depth of installation, qualityof productive wells is not uniformly managed at all. It makes it difficult to grasp rapidly andcorrectly on the existing condition of groundwater resources facilities and taking adequate decision in any kind of water resources plans and projects in the study area.


Quantification of a catchment water balance is a fundamental requirement in the assessment and management of water resources, in particular under the impacts of human-induced land use and climate change(Nebo and Sumaya, 2012). Effective planning and managing of the groundwater resources for utilization will therefore involve critical assessment of groundwater potential qualitatively and quantitatively vis-à-vis prevalent climate changes, and facilities for water abstraction to meet the present as well as future population water demand of the entire communities.

Remote Sensing (RS) technology produces an authentic source of information in identifying, classifying, mapping and planning of natural resources(Ifatimehinet al., 2009). Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) in water resources data acquisition, processing and storage are now increasingly used to solve challenges in water resources planning, development and management. The use of a GIS system within water
utility can provide benefits at different organizational level and different users (Roland and Zoran, 2011).Multiband, multidate and multistage satellite imaging has been extensively used in Asian countries and developed countries of the world for water resources studies and management of land uses (Akingbogun and Oloyede, 2012).

GIS approach produces GIS-generated maps with user friendly, robust and extensible database system which makes features such as query, groundwater potential and pollution vulnerability zone and distribution patterns of rural water supply facility possible from which comprehensive assessment can be inferred. This is the focus of this work for realization of the Sustainable Development Goal of water supply, sustainability of Water infrastructure, protection of groundwater aquifer from over exploitation and pollution which will bring about, high level and prompt decision taken by political leaders and operators within the study area.



1.2       Aim and Objectives

The aim of this study is to use Geographical Information System to carry out an assessment of groundwater resources for rural water supply scheme with a view to providing powerful tools for the scheme planning and management.

Specifically the objectives of this study are as follows: 

i. Determine the groundwater potential zones.

ii. Determine the groundwater pollution potential zones

iii. Evaluate climatic variation using trend analysis

iv. Establish rural water supply scheme point mapping with spatial distribution.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 111 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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