THE ROLE OF COUNSELOR IN COMBATING DRUG ABUSE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

ABSTRACT
This work was done to final  out the assessment of the Counsellor’s role in the fight against  drug abuse, because drug abuse has become a serious problem  we are facing  both in Nigeria and in other parts of  the world.
            The objectives of this research  is to find out if drug abuse has increased crime rate in Nigeria, to find out if the Counsellor is performing  their functions effectively, its assessment in the fight  against drug abuse in Nigeria and what impression people have about drug abuse in Nigeria.
            A critical  review of related  literature  was made. The  methodology used, the research  design, sample, the method of data collection and analysis  is found  in chapter three.
            Chapter four is devoted to the analysis of  data collected  and results of the research. Tables were used in the results.

            Chapter five contains the summary of the study and the recommendations for further study.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

According to the World Drug Report (2005), the use of illicit drugs has increased throughout the world in recent years. The report further states that a major world trend is the increasing availability of many kinds of drugs to an ever widening socio- economic spectrum of consumers. The report argues that the main problem drugs at global level continue to be opiates (notably heroine) followed by cocaine. For example, for most of Europe and Asia, opiates continued to be the main problem drugs, accounting for 62 percent of all treatment in 2003. Reports from a total of 95 countries indicated that drug seizures increased four-fold in 2003, and more than half of these were of cannabis.

Every country in the world, developed or developing, incurs substantial costs as a result of damages caused by substance abuse (World Drug Report, 2005). The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 1.1 billion people, representing a third of the world population above the age of 15 years, use tobacco, principally in the form of the cigarettes. Of the 800 million smokers, 700 million of them are males in developing countries (WHO, 2004). While smoking rates have been declining in the developed world, they have increased in the developing countries by as much as 50 percent, especially in Asia and in the Pacific region, over the last decade. Addiction to tobacco is therefore a major problem in the developing countries. According to the same report, tobacco Sources four million deaths annually, not including prenatal morbidity and mortality. This figure is projected to rise to 1.6 million by the year 2025, 70 percent of which will occur in the developing world if current trends continue (INCB, 2003).

According to the African Union Ministerial Conference on Drug Control in Africa report (2004), at least 16 countries in Africa have reported abuse of opiates, with prevalence rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.8 percent for the population aged 15 and above. Twelve countries reported cocaine abuse with prevalence ranging from 0.01 to
1.1 percent for this age bracket. Concurrently, the age of those initiated to drug use is diminishing with large numbers of in-school and out-of-school youth consuming drugs. This phenomenon is even more acute in conflict and post conflict countries, with populations experiencing high stress levels while child soldiers are provided with drugs to enable them to fight.

All the while, Africa’s role in the global drugs supply chain is increasing. Already the continent is the second largest region for cannabis production, trafficking and consumption, accounting for 26 percent of global seizures of this drug in 2001 (UNODC, 2004). By country, the largest hauls in this period were in Nigeria, Nigeria, and the Republic of South Africa, while Morocco is said to be one of the main producers of Cannabis resin.

According to a report by the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB, 2006), the East African region has become the fallback for drug dealers following increased control of traditional routes through the Netherlands and Spain. The warning followe the discovery of cocaine worth 6.4 billion Nigeria Naira in Imo and Enugu on December 14, 2004 (Daily Nation, March 2, 2006).

The situation described above is true in developed countries that have been experimenting with such drugs for a long period. However, developing countries are not exempt from the dangers. All countries, Nigeria included, are vulnerable. It has been noted that Nigeria is one of the developing countries in Africa that has lately been experiencing rapid increase in production, distribution and consumption of multiple drugs of dependence (Acuda and Yambo 1983; World Health Organization, 1995; Daily Nation, March 2, 2006). In the face of this challenge, a broad spectrum of the world community has demonstrated intense concern about the problem. It is in the best interests of every nation, including Nigeria, to take a firm stand in combating all aspects of drug abuse.

In 1990, the United Nations General Assembly created the United Nations Drug Control Programme (UNDCP). The creation of UNDCP will be based on the recognition of the need for an organization that would foster concerted international action against illicit drug production, trafficking and abuse. Its formation is evidence of the determination of the governments of the world, working through the United Nations (UN) to put an end to these transnational phenomena.

The Nigeria government has ratified two major United UN conventions on narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances in its quest to protect its citizens from the ravages of the global drug abuse menace. These include the Single Convention on Narcotic
Drugs (1961) and the Convention against Illicit Trafficking on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (1988). The government is currently working towards the ratification of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances (1971). In 1994, the government enacted a new anti-drug law, the Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances Control Act, as well as forming the Nigeria Anti-Narcotic Unit.

Within Nigeria itself, drug abuse is becoming an increasing problem Masita (2004), almost every Nigerian youngster at one time or another experiments with drugs, especially with beer and cigarettes. Although the regular users of hardcore drugs are much fewer than those of cigarette and alcohol, the study argues that the major cause of concern is that a high proportion of these young people eventually become addicted threatening their own health and safety, and causing difficulties for their families and friends.

Findings from a National Survey on Alcohol and Drug Abuse conducted by NACADA in 2012 shows that 13.3% of Nigerians are currently using alcohol, 9.1% tobacco, 4.2% miraa, 1.0% bhang and 0.1% heroin. Overall, bhang is the most easily available illicit drug in the country at 49% followed by cocaine while heroin is the least available illicit drug in the country. Alcohol is the most commonly abused substance in the country and poses the greatest harm to Nigerians as evidenced by the numerous calamities associated with excessive consumption and adulteration of illicit brews. Among the different types of alcoholic drinks, traditional liquor is the most easily accessible type of alcohol followed by wines and spirits and lastly chang’aa a local brew. 30 % of Nigerians aged 15-65 have ever consumed alcohol in their life;
13.3% of Nigerians currently consume alcohol that means that at least 4 million people. Worrying, though is that the median age of first use of all drugs has gone as low as 10 years.

Statement of the problem
Drug abuse has become rampant in our  society and this has  posed a problem because a society filled  with   filled with drug  addicts and drug dependents cannot move forward. A nation filled with people who misuse, abuse or are addicted to drugs will have  a high rate of increase in crime, prostitution etc. it also  makes way for  drug traffic kicking in the society. It constitutes  a major public health hazard and is a part of general  and  social disorganization we see around us that is, breeds comatose  patients, and various melody cases  that constitute  the urban  eyeore that dent the image of a nation. It contributes significantly to breakdown of law and  order and  establishment of various circles of abuses, deficiency, criminality and further abuse. Drug abuse  has also  led to the diversion of scarce resources to cure addicts, and to rehabilitate them, building  of psychiatric  hospitals, breakdown  of societal norms and values, leading to up heavily, anarchy and other  vices in the society, posing  more problem than to be solved.
Such problems call for in-depth  research to help  salvage the situation   to avoid  the set back it created for our society and this has to be done with the help of the Counsellor in order to inform and educate  the people on what that  effects of drug  abuse can cause to the society, and to the people  involved .

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
In the research statement, I  highlighted  some of the  problems which called for the research. The objectives of this study thus includes:
a.         To find out if drug  abuse has increased crime rate in Nigeria.
b.         To investigate how far the Counsellor has gone in informing and  educating  the society about serious issues in Nigeria.
c.         To  evaluate its assessment in the role it has played in the fight  against drug abuse in Nigeria.
d.         To find out the  impressions people have about drug  abuse in Nigeria.

Scope and limitation of the study 
The focuses of the study was to first establish the commonly abused drugs in these schools.

Significance of the Study
The proposed study could help the Ministry of Education (M.O.E.) to better understand the current situation and accordingly make changes to address the factors that contribute to substance abuse in secondary schools. Nigeria, like many other developing countries, is faced with the social problem of high rates of substance abuse. To make matters worse, the percentage of substance abusers in schools increases yearly despite the efforts to eradicate the problem. Failure to solve this problem not only threatens the life of individuals, but also the economic and social development of the country as a whole. The current study is useful in contributing to
the general body of knowledge in this area. Beyond that, however, it also explores the potential of schools to curb the drug problem.

The study should help to make policy makers, administrators and teachers aware of the factors hindering the effectiveness of the approaches which attempt to curb drug abuse and, where possible, create opportunities to eradicate the problem. The proposed programme would be useful in educating all Nigerians, youth and adults, on the risks of substance consumption. Thus, this study would play an important role in reducing, or even preventing high rates of substance use and abuse. Based on the findings, recommendations are made. If followed, these recommendations would be useful to administrators and policy makers in curbing substance abuse in schools through improving existing educational programmes, and striving to develop ones that are even more efficient. The study would also help in promoting a drug-free school environment and better academic performance, thus improving the standards of education in the country. In the absence of specific policies on substance abuse in schools this study makes important recommendations on the way forward.

Definition of Key Words 
Drug: Any product other than food or water that affects the way people feel, think, see, and behave. It is a substance that due to its chemical nature affects physical, mental and emotional functioning. It can enter the body through chewing, inhaling, smoking, drinking, rubbing on the skin or injection.

Drug abuse: Use of drugs for purposes other than medical reasons. It refers to misuse of any psychotropic substances resulting in changes in bodily functions, thus affecting the individual in a negative way socially, cognitively or physically. Social effects may be reflected in an individual’s enhanced tendency to engage in conflicts with friends, teachers, and school authorities. Cognitive effects relate to the individual’s lack of concentration on academic work and memory loss such as “blackouts.

Drug addiction: Addiction to drugs or alcohol means that a person’s body can no longer function without these substances. The addictive substances usually have negative effects, for example, they can alter mental state and behaviour to a point where the individual becomes a threat to himself and others. Once a person becomes addicted, it is hard to stop using drugs.

According to Bawkin and Bawkin (1972), an addicted person may show a decline in academic performance, frequently fails to attend classes, loses interest in school work and displays weakened motor coordination, poor health, and lack of interest in old friendships. Addiction by its nature distorts thinking processes giving prominence to thoughts which justify continuing addictive behaviour, and minimizing or excluding consideration of reasons for ceasing it.

Drug related problems: This term is used to describe all negative effects associated with drug abuse such as violence, conflicts with friends or school authorities, destruction of school property and academic underperformance.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 63 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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