TELEVISION AND RADIO CAMPAIGN AGAINST CULTISM IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION
1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Mass media have been a major agent of socialisation and tool for social change especially now that people depends on message from mass media. The potential power of the mass media help solve social problems. Television, Radio and Print Advertising can entice people to buy a wide range of products and services, newspaper messages and advertisement influence our ideas, values and behaviour.
According to conventional wisdom, it could be possible to use mass media to get people to act on behalf of their own health and well-being or to do right things. Based on this assumption, since World War II, the Federal, State and Local Government, private foundations and other non-governmental organizations have sponsored hundreds of public services campaigns to promote social rather than commercial “goods” (Delong & Winsten, 2000).
It is not surprising then that prevention advocates would look to the mass media as an important aid in addressing the problem of cultism in society. Most media campaign focused on college students cultism which have been campus based, using a mix of posters, flyers, electronic mail messages and college newspaper advertisement. More recently a few regional, state and national media campaigns have begin to address this issue as well.
However, The last two decades has witnessed secret cult violence in higher institutions in
Nigeria. Cult activities involving blood-letting and waste of human lives have reached an
alarming proportion. Anxiety, agony, anguish, destruction and death are the trademarks of
secret cult attacks.
Media reports blaze the coverage of cult activities in educational institutions in Nigeria. The
case of Benue State is particularly alarming when compared to the state of cultism in other
Nigerian Universities such as the University of Ibadan, University of Jos, University of
Nigeria, Nsukka, Ahamdu Bello University, etc.
Cult activities have continued to thrive in Nigeria towers due to erroneous impression of the
seeming invincibility of cults and their members. A major factor working in the favour of cult
groups is mass ignorance on the part of students, especially the new ones. These new students
are hood winked and deceived into joining their “dead cemeteries”. Secret cults on campuses
are completely empty and bereft of sound ideology.

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
For over two decades now, cultism has invaded the institutions of learning. Its devastating effect on the schools and its environs have become a veritable source of worry to those who have the interest of Nigeria at heart. As far back as 1990, universities, the government and the press had began to raise alarm about the menace of secret cultism (Kalu 2001:2). A cartoon on the cover page of the Newswatch Magazine of March 28, 1994 lays credence to this claim. The said cartoon shows some dangerous-looking dark figures with axes and daggers set to attack one another. According to Kalu (2001:3), the pyrates which had existed since 1952 suffered a major schism in 1972 when thirty of its members ceded and formed a competing band-the Buccaneers. Before long, other “denominations” emerged with sinister motives engaging in the use of knives, axes, guns and other deadly weapons to turn the land into a violent place. Prominently, in the decade of 1985-1995, there was an upsurge in the growth or proliferation of cultism as a total number of forty-five cult groups could be identified in the various schools in Nigeria. By this time, the higher institutions of learning have started springing up and so, the state began to feature vaguely in the issue of cultism as it affects these higher institutions as well.
How well can mass media as a vehicle for information dissemination be relied upon to perform its role in the society, to join hand in the battle against cultism?
How can the power of the mass media be used effectively to reduce cultism activities among people? To explore that question, this research begins by reviewing three types of television and radio campaigns focused on cultism activities; information, social norms marketing and advocacy.
These and many more questions is what the study is out to find answers to.

1.3       PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The overall purpose of this study is to find out the current trend of cultism among the undergraduate students in Nigeria and analyse the strategies used to address the problem, with the mass media site, television and radio stations in view. The specific objectives of the study are as follows;
1.      To examine impact of awareness of media campaign on cultism among undergraduates among Nigeria youth.
2.      To identify and evaluate strategies used among undergraduate to address cultism , their effectiveness and shortcomings.
3.      To examine whether television and radio stations educate and enlighten the general public in cultism .
4.      To know if mass media awareness on cultism has reduced the unlawful cultism activities in society.
5.      To examine if television and radio stations present adequate information on effect of cultism to the people in society.

1.4       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY          
That this study is important cannot be over stressed. This task is being embarked upon because of the following significances:
i.     The study will help one to know the origin of campus cultism in Nigeria.
ii.    It is designed to bring to the fore, the reasons why cultism thrive on our campuses despite efforts to stop it.
iii.   To examine the efforts of other researchers so far as regards cultism.
iv.    The research work will put the position and the plight of the cultist into proper lime-light and profer solutions for their escape.
v.   The study will enable each member of the society to wake up to his or her responsibilities in the fight against cultism.
vi.     The research will expose the failings of the child, the parent, the teacher, the government and the society at large. This discovery will pose a challenge to those who are responsible in one way or the other to amend their ways.
The study will also further the course of scholarship in Nigeria and beyond.

1.5       RESEARCH QUESTION
            The following are the research questions of the study;
1.      Has mass media awareness on cultism reduce the unlawful cultism activities in the society?
2.      Do television and radio stations educate and enlighten the general public on the bad effect of cultism?
3.      Is there any problem facing television and radio stations in creating awareness in cultism ?
4.      What are effects of cultism in the society?

1.6       SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study has been limited to television and radio stations in Port Harcourt, Rivers State Nigeria. The research focuses on the impact of mass media in creating awareness about cultism.

1.7       LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Wide research of this nature cannot be carried out without some constrains, this constrains pose a lot of limitation to this work.
1.      Duration for the research work is relatively short
2.      Stress emanated form other academic activities is also another constrain.
3.      Financial constrain poses another challenges.

1.8       DEFINITION OF TERMS
Mass Media:                                      These are means of communication to a larger audience. These are represented by radio, television, newspaper and magazine.
Media:                                                It refers to various means of communication.
Creating Awareness:                        It means making it known to the public or popular.
Impact:                                           The effect or impression of one thing on another and also the power of making a strong immediate impression.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 47 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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