SUSTAINABILITY OF OASIS FOUNDATION INTERNATIONAL CHILD LABOUR MONITORING SYSTEM PROJECT IN TWIFO HEMANG LOWER DENKYIRA DISTRICT OF CENTRAL REGION, GHANA

ABSTRACT
Project sustainability on eliminating child labour in cocoa growing areas in Ghana has received less attention. Issues confronting sustainability have rendered most projects not meeting project goals and needs of future generations. This study therefore assessed the sustainability of OASIS Foundation International child labour monitoring system project in Twifo Hemang Lower-Denkyira District, Central Region in Ghana. Survey design was employed to select 130 household whose member(s) was/were beneficiaries of the project. Content validated and pretested interview schedule was used to collect data, which was analysed using descriptive statistics and inferential such as Pearson product-moment correlation, Friedman rank test and multiple linear regression. The results revealed that the project was generally less sustainable; though the various dimensions used showed different levels of sustainability ranging from unsustainable to very sustainable. Levels of satisfaction, number of dependants, children less than 15 years, number of children in school and use of soap making skills were significantly related to social, economic, technical and institutional sustainability. Furthermore, children in school and use of soap making skills significantly influenced the sustainability of the project. The study recommends, among other things, increased efforts of development agencies and government parastatals by providing appropriate skills and resources to ensure economic, technical and institutional sustainability of such interventions. Government of Ghana should also ensure timely supply of school materials to increase enrolment and retention of pupils in these and other communities with similar projects.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
The chapter discusses child labour projects and sustainability. It briefly looks at OASIS child labour monitoring system project. The chapter also outlines the problem statement, objectives of the study, significance of the study and; limitations and delimitations of the study, definition of terms and organization of the study.

Background to the Study
The current issues of child labour in cocoa growing communities can be worst in the future if the necessary actions are not taken now. The International Labour Organisation estimated that over 215 million children worldwide are labourers and engaged in activities that should be abolished. Amongst them, children under the age of 15 were about 152 million, and those engaged in hazardous or dangerous activities were about 115 million (ILO, 2010). Children below the age to work are mostly found in sectors such as mining and agriculture. In a child labour survey, about 80 percent of all children in employment are classified as labourers (Ghana Statistical Service, 2014). This is because they fall under the minimum working age of 18 years and are engaged in works that threaten health, safety, or are subject to conditions of forced labour.

The welfare of children in cocoa growing areas, who are engaged in child labour, continues to be a concern to Government of Ghana and development agencies such as; the Ministry of Employment and Labour Relation, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection and Non-governmental organisations and donor agencies.

According to Ministry of Manpower, Youth and Employment (2008) a large number of children were exposed to hazardous working conditions such as chemical spraying of cocoa trees without using protective clothing, carrying heavy loads of cocoa seeds, and use of machete. Child labour and exposure to hazards are said to adversely affect school enrolment, participation, educational performance and completion rate. The labour menace prompted the International Labour Organisation (ILO) to campaign against child labour through the implementation of various projects or programmes. For example: The Child Labour Monitoring (CLM) interventions began in the 1990’s by the International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) of the ILO to regularly check the places where girls and boys may be working. The overall objective of the CLM is to ensure that, children and the young legally employed workers are protected from exploitation and hazards at work (ILO/IPEC, 2005).

Project sustainability on eliminating child labour in cocoa growing areas in Ghana has received less attention. According to Hanachor (2012) projects form part of the basis of assessing a country’s development among other countries. The assessment is based on an improved well-being of citizens through projects. This assessment also does not leave out the welfare of children. The Government of Ghana (GoG) has been partnering donor agencies and many non-governmental organisations in implementing projects towards poverty reduction and abolishing of child labour. However, confronting issues of sustainability have drawn most of the projects into not meeting project goals and needs of future generations (Egwemi, 2012). For example; the central tracking database of ex-working children project in Ghana was faced with sustainability issues of operations and maintenance (ILO/IPEC, 2005).

There are several dimensions to the sustainability of projects. These include economic, social, environmental, cultural, political, ethical, security and institutional sustainability (Dalay-clayton & Bass, 2002), technical and infrastructural sustainability (Ika, Diallo, & Thuillier, 2012). The International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) of the ILO viewed the CLMS as the system which is economically enhancing, technically necessary, institutionally anchored and socially acceptable and guarantees social justice in the rights of children and has harmony with societal norms (ILO/IPEC, 2007). The study was therefore based on social, economic, technical and institutional dimensions.

OASIS Child Labour Monitoring System Project
The Child labour monitoring system was an action project, designed within the framework of ILO-IPEC project titled: “Child labour monitoring system (CLMS)”. The ILO-IPEC project is a public-private partnership between the Chocolate and Cocoa Industry and the International Labour Organisation (ILO) to combat child labour in cocoa growing communities in Ghana and Côte D’ Ivoire. The project aimed at developing model child labour monitoring systems and processes to enable Government of Ghana, ILO and IPEC scale up and implement effective CLM systems in other cocoa growing regions.

The project was implemented by a Non-Governmental Organisation known as OASIS Foundation International in Tweapease and Ankaakoo communities of Twifo Hemang Lower-Denkyira District, Central Region, Ghana. The goal of the project was to address child labour problems in the cocoa sectors, largely by supporting and encouraging relevant district and community stakeholders to implement Ghana Child Labour Monitoring System (GCLMS).

Also, the main objective of the project was to eliminate worst forms of child labour in cocoa growing communities in Ghana. Furthermore, the output was mainly the establishment of community child protection committees (CCPCs) and district child protection committees (DCPCs) as child labour monitoring systems.

Finally, outcome of the project was reduction of children affected by WFCL through the prevention, withdrawal, rehabilitation and social integration of children in the cocoa sector through the establishment of GCLMS.

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Item Type: Ghanaian Project Material  |  Attribute: 166 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: GH50  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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