The study determined the relationship among parental self-esteem, value preference and achievement orientation of in-school adolescents. The study also had parental level of education and location as moderating variables. The study was conducted in six education zones in Enugu State. Six research questions and six hypotheses guided the study. The design of the study was correlation. The population of the study was all the SS 11 in-school adolescents in Government owned secondary schools in Enugu state. The sample of the study was one thousand three hundred and fifty in-school adolescents which were drawn through multi- stage sampling technique. Three sets of questionnaires were used to collect data for the study while data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation and Pearson product moment while simple linear regression was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The study found out among others that the relationship among parental self-esteem, value preference and achievement orientation of in-school adolescents is positive. Based on the findings some recommendations and suggestions for further studies were made.

Key word: parental self- esteem, value preferences, parental level of education, location, achievement orientation, and in-school adolescents.

Background to the Study
The trend about low achievement orientation of in-school adolescents seems to be on the rise. Most of the in-school adolescents dodge classes, do not attend school regularly, feel reluctant to study, see schooling as a burden, enjoy going late to school, indulge in examination malpractice to make a good grade, and do not care about paying school fees. Apparently, most of the in-school adolescents may prefer short-cuts to achievements due to the self-esteem of their parents (Adama, 2007).
Self-esteem refers to the extent to which one likes, accepts, and approves of oneself (McLeod 2008). According to Ugwu and Ugwuele (2006), self-esteem is the extent at which one values oneself. Self-esteem is the feeling of self-worth and self-satisfaction about oneself. The self-esteem describes the unique make-up of an individual that exist inherently and is informed by harmonious identification and incorporation of parent’s attitude and traits (Firestone, 2011). Self-esteem supposed to be an especially important issue for parents given the central role they play in the socialization and development of their children. Parents influence their adolescents directly and indirectly, consciously and unconsciously through modeling, through provision of guidance, advice, opportunities, constraints and reinforcement by their parenting practices and through values and belief they hold. In this study, self-esteem is one’s value and acceptance in ones social group.

Parental self-esteem is the positive and negative appraisal of a parent’s own worth. Parent’s self-esteem can be low or high. Low self-esteem is a debilitating condition that keeps individuals from realizing their full potential. A person with low self-esteem feels unworthy, incapable, and incompetent. In fact, one with low self-esteem feels so poorly about oneself. When it is low, a parent has negative view of themselves and this may lead to lack of confidence, want to be like someone else, and always suspicious of others. High self-esteem is the type that gives one the strength and flexibility to take charge of one’s life and grow from one’s mistakes without the fear of rejection. When it is high, a parent has positive view of themselves and it tends to lead to confidence in parents’ abilities, self-acceptance, not worrying much about what others think and say. Firestone (2011) added that when parents feel good about themselves, they are much better able to extend this positive sense of self to their children. They can engage in activities, relates to and offer children support from a place of confidence and ease. On the other hand, when parents have negative of themselves, it is equally easy for them to extend these negative feelings to their children. Operationally, parental self-esteem describes the way parents think and feel about the self and also present themselves to others.

The negative thought parent harbor towards themselves can lead to parental rejection, neglect or hostility. Parents’ negative self-esteem also serves as an example for their children. When parents hear their children comment on their performance in the school or call themselves stupid, parents may wonder where the children got such ideas about themselves. But parents can certainly recall many atimes they criticized themselves for being lazy or stupid in front of their children (Firestone, 2011).

Parents with negative self-esteem may not have good parents-child relationship and may not show love, care and warmth to their children and as a result, these children may develop low achievement orientation. Positive parental self-esteem could breed high achievement orientation. Parents with high self-esteem could set high standard for their adolescents and take time to monitor the adolescent’s school achievement. Also the fact that value systems are profitably transferred from parents to their children is supported by research which shows that parent’ values and beliefs directly predict adolescent achievement orientation (Garnier & Stein, 2002). As primary agents of socialization, parents have an extended period of time and many opportunities to transmit their self-esteem and values to their children.

The term “value” refers to a general conviction a person holds and defends (Ngwoke & Omego, 2013). Value emerges in the process of interactions and activities in the society and defines the choice between different ways of behaviour in certain situation. Basic human values enhance good behaviour, attitude, purposes and direction to human lives. According to Achugbu (2012), the word value has several meanings. One is the actual worth of an item in monetary terms. Another meaning of value involves a more personal measure of worth, such as how important individual consider certain things, beliefs, principles and ideas, people attach different worth to things based on their sense of value. Values are abstract goals that are applied across situations and serve as guiding principles in people’s live in the selection and justification of actions and evaluation of others and events (Schwartz & Bardi, 2001). Operationally, value is the relative worth, an individual attach to issues, things and event.

Value can be core or ephemeral (Ben & Aminu, 2013). The core values are those worth which people cannot compromise. They are for the well-being of the individual and the society. On the other hand, ephemeral values are those worth meant to unduly exaggerate self about the societal values.
One of the objectives of the nation’s educational policy is the inculcation of the right type of values and attitudes for the survival of the individual and the Nigerian society (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004:8). Value here means the attachment of importance to issues, things or phenomena. It is a belief in a reason for existence which is preferred to its opposite. Ones value system may change due to experience, education and the likes. People attach different worth to things based on their sense of values. The worth and the importance people attached to a situation, things and event becomes their preference.

Value preference can be seen as the attitudes and behaviours of a person towards accomplishment (Omego, 2009). Changes are expected in the value preference of parents as they have contact with the working environment. Parental value preference is considered as the choice of values parents make in all facets of their lives. Such choice directs parent’s attitudes and behavior. In the context of this study, parental value preference is the attitude and behaviour of parents towards achievement of the in-school adolescents. Parental value preference can be core and it can be ephemeral. Most parents may prefer hard work and right training for achievement but some parent may prefer short-cuts for achievements. Such short-cuts often results to vices like examination malpractices, cultism, internet stealing, abduction of innocent citizens, and robbery. Parental value preference may be as a some times be due to the parent’s level of education and location.....

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 105 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word   Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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