MOTIVATION AND JOB PERFORMANCE OF LIBRARIANS IN RESEARCH LIBRARIES AT NIGERIA INSTITUTE FOR OIL PLAM RESEARCH AND RUBBER RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF NIGERIA

ABSTRACT
The research work investigates the motivation of staff and the level of job performance of librarians in research libraries in Edo state. The specific objectives and research questions were stated, the related literature were reviewed. Survey design was adopted for the study. The study population employed comprises of all the librarians in selected research libraries in Edo state and the sample size retrieved was 25 librarians. Descriptive sampling techniques were adopted for the study. The data collection instrument was the administration of the questionnaire and the data was analyzed using simple percentage and frequency counts. It was found that librarians in research libraries are not well motivated in terms of increase salaries, remunerations, due promotions, other fringe benefits, favourable working conditions and hours. It was found that the level of job performance was low and that motivation can influence job performance of librarians vis versa if the right measures are put in place. It was recommended that Favourable work condition and work hours Remuneration, retirement benefits and other incentives should be given to librarians, also Libraries in research institutes should be well equipped and necessary materials and infrastructure should be put in place and maintained in order to facilitate better performance from staff and librarians.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study

The urgent need to improve social, economic, and cultural development in developing countries necessitated the establishment of industries. This is because industries represent a major investment in the development of a nation’s resource. As Such, whether public or private controlled, these institutions are presumed to be major concern to the government. In order for industries to be effective, there is need to have an organized, and well coordinated library service aimed at supporting research activities through the provision of timely, accurate, and reliable information resources.
According to Wikipedia dictionary (2015) a library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for research. It provides physical or digital access to material, and maybe a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both.
            Backwell (1993) observes that the future of any library depends more on its staff than on any other factor. This is because library staffs have a full responsibility of acquiring, organizing and disseminating information. Therefore, the usefulness of service institutions like research libraries is measured by the services rendered to the industry or user. This in turn depends on the personnel who are responsible for the effective and efficient delivery of such services.  It is therefore suggested that human resources selected and recruited in research libraries have to be properly, adequately developed, motivated, and maintained in order to provide quality service aimed at meeting information needs of the library users.  
            Backwell (1993) further explains that library Professionals occupy a prominent place in special libraries as compared to other financial and material resources such as buildings, equipment, and furniture. He further observes that human resources are not animate with attendant emotions, feelings, beliefs, expectations, opinions, perceptions, attitudes, and other personal traits such as values and customs. By so doing, the Human factor will give the necessary support and life to all other material resources in order to provide useful services to the users.
Job motivation of librarians is crucial in achieving effectiveness in the library. The higher the level of motivation everything being equal the higher the quality of librarian’s contribution to the achievement of library’s goals.
            (Bryson, 1990, Siggins, 1992, Outi, 1999, Henmah, 2007). Job motivation would exert tremendous influence on the productivity of the librarians. The researchers aver that a highly motivated employee would have a high morale which would translate into positive attitude to work and attendant high productivity. Therefore, to enjoy the services of the librarians (in form of high productivity) it is imperative for the special library management to make them Happy on their chosen career.
It was found that the librarians appeared to be dissatisfied with their job. Their dissatisfaction with their job could be due to the promotion criteria (especially publication output) which they could not meet. Moreover, too much administrative responsibilities might have impacted negatively on the productivity of the librarians as they have little or no time to embark on meaningful researches.
Bill (1998) states that personnel endowed with highest competence and integrity are essential in research libraries. This calls for proper management of library personnel with the sense of purpose, pride, and direction.
Backwell (1993) However, in order to increase efficiency and productivity among librarians they need to be motivated. This is because people bring to their work places a crystallized and complex set of cognition, personal feelings, desires, perceptions, and motives.
Kishore (2008) also observes that when an individual is unsettled about social related issues such as recognition, social interaction with colleagues and many others, his or her efficiency will be impeded. Furthermore a person whose various dimensions are harmoniously attuned will be more effective in his or her working environment. It is therefore expected that the work environment should provide a meaningful, satisfying, and challenging atmosphere which will unleash human potential within every individual. It is by so doing that individual employees would be motivated and increase their level of productivity.
Motivation of the librarians does not only depend on remunerations but over and above a number of other factors such as provision of accommodation, transport, safety and security and recognition. Motivation among librarians might seem an insignificant problem among key policy makers, yet contributes to the impediment towards support for the government’s effort to develop a nation. This is because research libraries are considered to be the engine for supporting research that will enhance the productivity of an industry and this will promote the economy of a nation. It is therefore expected that policy makers draw attention to the crucial nature of the role librarians play through supporting the achievement and improvement of high standard of industries in the country. It should be borne in mind that effective researches in institutions are centered on well coordinated library services. For this to be achieved, everything anchors on the librarians. Therefore, if librarians are not motivated, the implication would be that support for quality service would suffer.   
Furthermore the nation’s sustained social and economic development would be almost impossible because development cannot be divorced from research.
The issue of motivation among librarians is quite critical in that a motivated librarian is directly linked to higher productivity. This is because lack of motivation compromises the professional conduct, leading to poor work culture such as poor performance, absenteeism, lateness, and other bad behavioral tendencies such as corruption, use of abusive language and also idling around within the library premises or even outside. The above mentioned trends are quite prevalent especially in government owned industries in Nigeria. It is observed that such trends are un- likely to decrease in the near future unless remedial measures are taken.

Staff motivation
 Motivation is the inner drive that moves human beings towards achieving a goal. Hence, motivated behaviors are voluntary choices controlled by individual employee. The supervisor (motivator) wants to influence the factors that motivate the employee (Motivatee) to higher productivity. Generally, workers are regarded as the most important assets which lead to achievement of organization’s goals and objectives.  Motivation is the key to a powerful manner, which creates productivity and helps the organization to survive. Librarians are agents who work together in library settings or information centers to foster an inclusive, progressive and satisfying work-place. They also serve as primary source of information for library management’s decision making in terms of employee motivator and liaise with the users to get feedback on service rendered towards higher productivity. Such category of staff needs more motivation as they are the backbone of the library. Armstrong (2012) defines motivation as “the force that energies, directs and sustains behavior.’’ It is concerned with the strength and direction of behavior, and the factors that affect people to act in certain ways. Allan et al., (2011) view motivation as something which impels a person to act, or it is a reason of behavior. They further stated that motivation is not manipulation of people but understanding of needs, or wages which prompt people to do things.

The level of performance of librarians
Performance is a commonly used concept in industrial and organizational psychology. It is refers to how people performs their given job.  Job performance as defined by James (2002) is the act of carrying a command, duty or purpose; and equally an observable and measurable behavior of a person in a particular situation.
Drafke, and Kossen (1998) on their part defines performance as the completion of a task or tasks; taking action in accordance with requirement. The most commonly conceptual approach to job performance was developed by Campbell (1990). He first defines performance as behaviour. It is something done by the employee. He however allows for exceptions when defining performance as behaviour. For instance he clarify that performance does not have to be directly observable actions of an individual. It can consist of mental Productions such as answers or decisions. He however stated that, performance needs to be under the individual control regardless of whether the performance interest is mental or behavioural. He further stated that despite the emphasis on defining job performance, it is not a single unified construct. There are many jobs each with different performance standards. Therefore, job performance is conceptualized as multidimensional construct consisting of more than one behavioral kind.
Libraries according to Ikegbune (1997) cannot function alone; it is a human enterprise and depends on the skilled minds and talents of librarian to perform their expected role in our dynamic society. Library service is a way of life; like a chick emerging from its shell, the librarians have changed from a lonely custodian of books to the chief provider and source of information and knowledge. Librarianship is a recognized profession that needs men and women folks. It demands trained people who have stills and a passion to pursue this career. A librarian with no deep interest could with no doubt perform a minimum job, but a librarian with a deeper interest might make a more successful profession in librarianship; he will be better able to understand the needs of the people using the library.
In the recent past, librarians have traditionally been known as custodians of information material. For many in the past, a librarian is one who has the care or charge of a library; a keeper or custodian, but presently librarianship is growing daily. Librarians share with other profession something indefinable which transforms it from a mere occupation into a way of life. Those who see it as a hobby or way of life finds great fulfillment in their job which brings satisfaction and high level of performance. However, librarians will always remain one of the most important factors in the process of achieving the aim and objectives of a library

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE RESEARCH LIBRARY:
NIGERIA INSTITUTE FOR OIL PLAM RESEARCH (NIFOR)
Nigeria institute for oil palm research, (NIFOR), was formally known as West African institute for oil palm research, (WAIFOR). NIFOR is an international center of excellence in palms and shea research and development. The institute has varied and enormous infrastructure and has made a considerable impact over the years since its establishment in 1939, through research, development, and extension support for Nigeria enjoys substantial international standing as a major center in oil palm research. The institute’s achievement and reputation derive from its highly trained scientific staff, a well established experimental station infrastructure with functional facilities, a tradition of scholarship and relevant research and a functional library with over 800 collections of books, journals, abstract, directories, research reports etc

RUBBER RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF NIGERIA (RRIN)
Established in1961 at Iyanomo as rubber research station of the then western region was taken over by the federal government of Nigeria in 1973 with a merger of the demonstration centre of the eastern Nigeria located at Akwete . rubber research institute of Nigeria (RRIN) with headquarters at Iyanomo, RRIN is the only government agency in the country mandated to conduct research into production and development of natural rubber (NR), gym Arabic and other latex producing plants of economic importance . a well functional library is present well trained staff/librarians and a well structured collection of books.

1.2 Statement of Problem
Motivation is vital to librarianship as to any other profession in any organization or special libraries. It is universally believed that when employees are sufficiently motivated it leads to higher productivity and efficiency. With an ever increasing need to satisfy the general public research are been carried out to know the need of the users and to manufacture products that will meet the standard of the general public Despite this librarians are looked down on by management of the organization or industry based on the facts that librarians maybe Para-professionals staffs to the establishment. In spite of the fact that librarians are charged with the responsibility of embarking on research to help the industry meet the needs of users they are not properly motivated. There is need for an understanding of the fundamental drives, urges, needs and desires of the people which can be manipulated and stimulated. In addition, there is the need for a sense of communication and methodology that would provide stimulation of these urges. Some of the methods used for  this purpose may be the provision of financial incentive, cordial working environment, challenging work and responsibility, personnel accomplishment, recognition for such accomplishment and an opportunity for growth and advancement, salaries, job design, creating flexibility, reward, promotion, training, and performance management.. However, librarians feel that they are not recognized or appreciated by their managers for their contribution. Thus, lack of motivation hinders them from performing to the best of their ability. Motivation comes from within each individual.
The level of performance of librarians can be used as a determinate to the level of motivation. Whereby motivation affects the level of performance of librarians and the level of performance of librarians can be used as a means of motivating them vis versa. Given this scenario, this study sought to examine/ investigate the level of motivation and how it affects the level of performance of librarians in some selected libraries in Nigeria. R.R.I.N and NIFOR      

1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of the study is to examine the level of motivation and the level of performance of librarians in some selected research libraries in Nigeria. R.R.I.N and NIFOR  
The specific objectives of this study are to:
1.                  determine the extent to which librarians are motivated
2.                  determine the level of performance of librarians in research libraries
3.                  determine the influence of motivation on the performance of librarians in research libraries
4.                  determine the strategies of motivating librarians 

1.4 Research Questions
1.                  To what extent are librarians in research libraries motivated?
2.                  What is the level of performance of librarians in research libraries?
3.                  What is the influence of motivation on the level of performance of librarians? 
4.                  What are the strategies of motivating librarians in research libraries?

1.5 Scope of the Study
            This study will be limited to investigating the level of motivation, the level of performance of librarians in some selected special/research libraries (R.R.I.N and NIFOR). The study will investigate only librarians in some selected special libraries due to time factor, resources, experience and knowledge.  It as well covers the extent to which job motivation (such as: salaries, promotion, annual leave, training freedom, compensation etc) influence the productivity of librarians in the organization.     

1.6 Significance of the Study
The significance of this study can be expressed in many ways, part of the findings of the study will help to properly establish and place the library in its rightful position within the set up of the organization. It is hoped that the findings will be beneficial to management and policy makers in the various industries to find better ways of motivating librarians to enhance their level of job performance. It is further hoped that the findings of this research will be useful when it comes to issues such as staff recruitment, retention as well as training and development of valuable human resources. Furthermore, the findings of this study will also add knowledge to the already existing literature on factors affecting motivation of librarians. 

1.7 Limitation of the Study 


1.8 Conceptual Definition of Terms
The study will be limited to investigating the motivation and job performance of librarians in selected research libraries in Edo State. All other research libraries and research librarians will be excluded from the studies. The scope is to cover the motivation and job performance of librarians at Nigeria institute for oil palm research and rubber research institute of Nigeria, Edo State, Nigeria.

LIBRARIAN: One who has the care of a library, its contents, selection of books, documents, and non-book materials that comprise its stock, and provides information and loan services to meet the needs of the users.
MOTIVATION:  A conscious or unconscious driving that arouses and directs action towards the achievement of a desired goal.
PERFORMANCE: How well a person, machine, etc dose a piece of work or an activity?
RESEARCH LIBRARY: a general or specialized library that collects materials for use in intensive research projects.
JOB: a task or piece of work, especially one that is paid

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