MEASURES AT ELIMINATING HAZARDS IN HIGH RISE BUILDINGS IN ESAN LAND: A CASE STUDY OF SHOPPING MALL

ABSTRACT
This research project examined hazard in high rising building with a case study of shopping mall in Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State. The motivation for this is associated with the types of hazards that are resulting from the construction of most commercial buildings as shopping malls especially in Ekpoma, Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State. The objectives examined the nature and types of hazards within the building sites, examine the causes of the hazard, examine the effects of the hazard and possible solutions for reducing site hazard in commercial building. Data was collected through the administration of structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics, such as frequency count and percentage. The findings from the study revealed that the use of poor quality and substandard materials are the major reasons for the hazard associated with the construction of commercial buildings in the study area. It was therefore recommended that professionals in the building industry should maintain their integrity and professional ethics and work in accordance to standard practice procedures laid down by the standard form of building contractstown development agencies at various levels of government should enforce control of building works in their localities as laid down in urban and regional planning, organize periodic public awareness campaign through electronic and print media to sensitize the public on advantages of using professionals as the way of realizing safe buildings, standard organization of Nigeria should be vigilant to ensure that building materials imported into the country conforms to standard requirements and proper planning, supervision and monitoring of construction activities should be institutionalized by policy makers to ensure that all buildings are constructed according to design, specifications and planning regulations.

CHAPTER ONE 
1.0       INTRODUCTION 
1.1       Background to the study
In the developed as well as developing part of the world, construction industry is considered to be one of the most significant industries. However, the construction industry at the same time is also recognized to be the most hazardous (Suazo and Jaselkis, 1993: Farooqi, 2008). Although dramatic improvement has been made in recent decades, the safety record in the construction industry continues to be one of the poorest (Farooqi, 2008). The major causes of accidents in the construction industry are related to the unique nature of the industry, human behavior, difficult work site conditions, non-payment of adequate attention to safety measures, and poor safety management which result in unsafe work methods and procedures. Accident statistics represent not only terrible human tragedies but also substantial economic costs. Accidents can also cause work disruption and reduce the work rate Enbassi, Choudhry, Mayer and Shoman, (2008).
Hazard has been defined as a real or potential situation that may cause un-intentional injuries or deaths to people, or damage to, or loss of an item or belonging. It can be regarded as the counterpart of safety. Therefore Hazard is a phenomenon or a process that can endanger human being and their work environment. Hazard associated with building construction can be from work material, equipment, work method and practice among others. Hazard pose health and safety challenges on construction sites and adjoining properties, workers and the general public (Bala, et al., 2012). According to Bala, et.al., (2012) the construction industry is faced with numerous health and safety challenges, this is as a result of hazards inherent in construction activities. The construction industry has been identified with the highest occurrence rate of site hazard compared to any other industry (Bala, et.al., (2012). In the recent past, death tolls permanent disability, partial disability and some other severe environment threat had increasingly been on the rise through collapse of building and major operational site hazard. This unfortunate scenario has been a monumental threat to productivity and the overall performance of the construction projects in Nigeria (Orji, 2014 cited in OLatunji et al., 2007).
According to MacCollum and Hugas, (2005), hazards are more than an unsafe physical condition and many lie latent and unsuspected until they cause irrevocable harm; that is why Hunter (2011), strongly opined that every employee be acquainted with the provisions of the occupational safety and health administration (OSHA) in order to understand how their actions may constitute harm or injury to them in their workplace. Mwombeki (2005) defines site hazard as an unplanned and unexpected occurrence, which upsets a planned sequence of work, resulting to loss of production, injury to personnel, damage to plant and equipment and eventually interrupting production flow. However, Solitaire (1992) defines control measures as an act of limiting or making something to happen in a particular way, stop something from spreading, going out of hand or getting worse. Similarly, Bala et.al, (1999) identify safety in construction as the process or way of protecting the health and life of those who build, operate maintain and demolish engineering works, and others affected by those works
In this regard, Takala, (2005) cited in International Labour Office  (I.L.O.) 2005 argues that the global number of site hazard in the building industry is unquantifiable, due to lack of information and also more harzardours than any other economic sector. Site hazard on building sites, whether minor or fatal, could result to loss of resources i.e. wastes and make the construction industry a deadly working place. Site hazard on building sites are inevitable, but could be controlled to prevent minor or serious consequences on the workers. Thus control measures of site hazard to ensure safety of workers and minimize accident related waste on sites is essential, hence the ultimate aim of this research is to minimize site hazard occurrence and waste on sites.

1.2       Statement of the Problem
 The level of civilization and technological changes has advanced the application of complex techniques to building works. Technological changes require a corollary of manpower that is trained to effectively respond to them. Unfortunately, another evidence shows that this is not the case in the Nigerian building industry, as unsafe practices characterize construction processes, leading to accident that leave severe consequences on the project and the nation’s economy in general Hughes (2005),

1.3       Research Questions
i.                    What are the causes of hazard  in commercial buildings
ii.                 What are the types of hazard found in building site?
iii.               What are the effects of hazard on commercial buildings?
iv.               What are the possible ways of reducing site hazards in commercial buildings

1.4       Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this study is to reduce incidence of site accident and hazard in high rise building: within the study area.
The objectives of the study are:
i.                    To examine the causes  of hazard in commercial buildings
ii.                 To  investigate the types of site hazards within the building sites
iii.               To  examine the effect of site hazard on commercial buildings
iv.               To provide possible solutions to reducing site hazards in commercial buildings

1.5       Significance of the Study
            There are several valuable benefits expected by implementing this study. The purpose of this study is the assessment of site hazards in commercial buildings. It can ensure good practice of project management in an effort to common injuries that are related to poor safety precautions. Efficient studies on managing sites hazards can reduce the potential of accidents, injuries and illness besides it can improve the performance and productivity of building projects. Considering the importance of the sector to every economy and as the quest to achieve and reduce site hazards in commercial building in Nigeria, the construction industry requires adequate attention from all stakeholders to address the situation of hazards and safety precautions in construction sits with the aim of improving the health and safety conditions of the workers.

1.6       Study Area
The study area is Ekpoma, the administrative headquarters of Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. The area properly between latitudes 6043’ and 6045’ North of the Equator, and longitudes 606’ and 608’ East of the Greenwich MeridianEsan West Local Government is made up of many quarters including Eguare, Iruekpen, Emaudo, Ujoelen, Ihumudumu, Illeh, Uke, Uhiele, Ujemen, Ukepnu, Idoa, Ukhun, Egoro, Emuhi, Igor and Idumebo. These quarters are all considered in this study.
The economic activities of the people of Ekpoma are made up of agricultural and non-agricultural sector. The agricultural sector includes crops cultivation and the rearing of animals. The industrial sector of the study area is made up of both agro-based and non-agro based industries.

Esan West Local Government has approximately 125,842 inhabitants with 63,785 males and 62,057 females in the Census Report (2006). It has an area of 502 km². The population of the area is made up of both indigenes and non-indigenes (Okojie 1994 and Omofonmwan, 2006). The indigenes are the Ekpoma people while the non-indigenes are the immigrants who are either students or workers in Ambrose Alli University (A.A.U) Ekpoma. Other are those employed by other industrial sector, agricultural sector, religious sector and those that are involve in the marketing of both industrial and non-industrial products in the area.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 55 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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