INFLUENCE OF POLITICAL ADVERTISING ON VOTER BEHAVIOUR: A STUDY OF 2017 GUBERNATORIAL ELECTION IN ANAMBRA STATE

ABSTRACT
It has become more fashionable to use political messages to create awareness during political campaigns. Indeed political advertising is becoming very popular since it aids the candidate to create awareness and persuade the people to buy into his views. Political campaign materials can come through different media: print (including billboards and flayers) or broadcast (Tv and Radio).This study examined the influence of political Advertising on the Behaviour of Anambra state Electorate: A study of 2017 Gubernatorial Election in Awka North.  The study sought to determine the extent the people were exposed to the media, also to ascertain the medium through which they were exposed to political messages as well as if the people were influenced by the political messages. The study was designed as a survey. Findings revealed that the electorate in Awka North LGA were not always exposed to the media messages, the people of Awka North watched and listened more to television political messages and the people of Awka North were influenced by the political messages. The study concluded that indeed Political Advertising served as an effective political communication strategy through which political candidates market themselves and send information to the voters. The study therefore recommended that the media especially television should strategize message delivery to engender confidence in its listener to retain their trust, that candidates should enlarge and strengthen their political messages in both newspaper and radio and politicians and political parties should make efforts to give credible messages since most electorate are influenced at voting by political messages.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title
Table of contents
List of figures
List of tables
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
Statement of Research Problem
Objectives of the study
Research Questions
Hypothesis
Scope of the study
Significance of the study
Definition of Terms
References

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Review of concepts
2.3 Theoretical Framework
2.4 references

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLGY
3.2Research Design 
3.3Population of Study
Sample/Sampling Techniques
3.5 Description of Research Instrument
Validity/Reliability of Data Gathering Instrument
Method of Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis
References

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Data Presentation and Analysis
4.3 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Summary of Findings
5.3 Conclusion
5.4 Recommendations
5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies
References
Questionnaire

CHAPTER ONE
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Political Advertising is the medium through which political candidates provide their electorates with adequate information on party policies, clear-cut vision as well as their political agendas to enable electorates actively choose their candidates based on full information. To achieve a political aim by the politician, political parties use the media in campaigns.
            The media assists voters to make an informed choice at election time (Currance 2005, 129). This is done in form of paid political advertising, social media campaigns, commentaries and news stories.
            Infact, political parties and their candidates are becoming aware of the importance of advertising and its role in getting the electorates choose a particular candidate or party over the other by way of informing them. The use of political advertising has become more important and popular in electoral process because it bridges the communication gap between political parties, political candidates and electorates.
            Scholars and Communication experts argue that, when the politician crafts his campaign messages as being the fight to improve voters’ lives or something similar and come with some good measure of integrity, the voter are more likely to believe him (Feyipitan, 2015). More so, the electorates believe more on the candidate that proposes something to offer than the candidate that based his campaign on his achievement only.
            Political advertising is the skillful or flexible deployment of information, facts, figures, images and imagery often exaggerated in proportions to persuade the electorates including opponents believe in his ability. This practice is not strange to Nigerian political environment. However, over the year, the use of advertising in politics has become tense and problematic.
            This study examines political advertising in Nigeria as it relates to the behavior of voters during electioneering, particularly in the 2017 Gubernatorial election of Anambra State with a view to determine its productivity for promoting, pertinent national, regional,social,economic and cultural issues it will also try to find out if there is tendency towards personal attacks, ethnicslurs or promotion of hate messages.
            Advertising comes in various forms and media. As such, it is classified based on the type of media and the purpose for which it is used, hence, advertising types such as print advertising, broadcast advertising, public service announcements, advocacy advertising, product advertising, political advertising and so on exists. Political advertisements are one of the various forms of advertising; (Okwechime2006, 198) traced the origin of political advertising to 1952 when President Eisenhowerwon elections through the placement of many spot commercials during his political campaign. Political advertising can also be used to promote political parties and candidates canvassing for political office.  Usually Political advertisers use jingles or commercials musicals to set the tone or agenda. Advertising effects are so notable that they cannot be ignored. Advertising will reflect the level of the organization’s commitment to quality, excellence and relationships with its various constituents including governing bodies and the general public.
            Advertising has grown rapidly with the improvement in technology: it has gone from the stage of the use of planks (which is still in use) to fliers. Today, there are electronic advertiser like on the television (here it is audio-visual), radio (audio), internet (social media) electronic billboard e.t.c. Advertising plays significant role in shaping public perception on various important issues, through information, persuasion which is the key role of advertising. The advertisements shape modern culture by selecting and portraying a particular set of beliefs, values and traditions as reality.
            Advertising has its primary function which is to persuade people or the decision taken most of the times derived from the amount of information obtained from the advertising messages. The importance of advertising in the development of the society has attained a greater level. The role is to collect, select, certify and repackage information. Advertising is a persuasive mechanism; it can reshape the view of the members of the society for or against the sponsors. An individual may consciously or unconsciously select the thoughts and impressions upon which an image is based. Thus, advertising function becomes the bridge between the people and the sponsor in testing of dissemination and feedback process. Advertising becomes fundamental to the success of corporate or government programmers and projects.


1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
 Advertising in general terms is used to persuade people into agreeing with the sponsors’ intention.
There is no disputing fact that the media play a key role or central role in the behavior of the voters during electioneering. This role may be in the form of informing, educating, entertaining, persuading, promoting culture e.t.c. Advertisement was delivered don’t mean that it was received, nor it indicate that it was understood and accepted as true. This background has provided the basis for understanding the role of advertising on the behavior of voters during electioneering campaign. Okoro (1988) remarks that political advertising is a special type of advertising which calls for high strategic thinking and action initiative.


1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
            The objective of this research is to find out:
1)      To determine if the political messages in the media were used during the 2017 gubernatorial election in Anambra state.
2)      To determine which media were the electorate exposed to political Advertisement.
3)      To determine if the political Advertisement influenced the behavior of residences of Awka North during their election..

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In order to establish and determine the influence of political advertising in the behavior of voters during electioneering campaign these questions were viewed as relevant to this study.
1)      Were the people of Anambra state exposed to the political messages?
2)      Which media/medium were the people exposed to?
3)      Were the people influenced by the political messages?

HYPOTHESIS
H1: the people of Anambra were exposed to media message
H0: the people of Anambra were not exposed to media message
H2: the people of Anambra were exposed to media channel
Ho: the people of Anambra were not exposed to media channel
H3: the people of Anambra were influenced by the political messages
H0: the people of Anambra were not influenced by the political messages


SCOPE OF THE STUDY
            The scope of this research work was limited to the behavior of the people of Awka North during electioneering campaign and on how they used the media and the effect of messages they were exposed to. This is to enable the researcher carry out the study effectively since studying and comparing the whole country would create some difficulties to the researcher. The researcher limited the work to the use of advertising as tool for running the government of Anambra State during election.


SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study is to measure the use of mass media in political communication and the success of the users. Certainly, good political messages on the media are good PR stuff designed to sell the capacity and capability of political aspirants.
Further, this study will assist in bringing into focus what images they portrayed during 2017Governorship election in Anambra State. It will also serve as a document for Mass Communication scholars in further studies.


OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
POLITICAL ADVERTISEMENT: information conveying candidates ofgubernatorial election in Anambra messages to acquaint voters with his accomplishments and personalities.
ADVERTISING; it is a form of mass communication through which the candidates of Anambra state gubernatorial election designed his ideas to promote his political office ambition.
CAMPAIGNit is the way candidates of Anambra state election created awareness of their political ambition with the aim to persuade people to vote for them.
ELECTORATE: They are the Anambra people persuaded by the candidates to vote for them.
BEHAVIOR: It is the response illicit by the people of Anambra through the political messages.
ELECTIONEERING: It is how the candidatesparticipated during the campaign toearn voters votes.

CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION
POLITICAL ADVERTISEMENT: his can be defined as the political candidates, aspirants, political parties’ manifestoes, programmers and ideas, electoral body activities and political messages and programmers through advertisement placement in the media (Osho S.A (2008).

ADVERTISING: It is a form of communication through the media to persuade people accept their products, services and ideas usually paid for by an identified sponsor.
CAMPAIGN: Creating awareness by a candidate on his political office ambition.
ELECTORATE: People who are entitled to vote in an election.
BEHAVIOR: It is an observable response produced by an organism.
ELECTIONEERING:  Campaigning for elective office on behalf of oneself or another candidate. 

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 56 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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