EVALUATION OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN THE NIGERIAN BANKING INDUSTRY

ABSTRACT
Research into corporate governance in Nigerian Bank was born out of necessity to investigate the frequent collapse of some banks ever since the post- independence period. Bank failure is so disturbing because it sits at the centre of the economy. Upon further enquiry, this study arrived at the conclusion that central to the causes of bank failure is the poor management in institutions. The first chapter succinctly discussed the issues of bank failure and faults, centralization of management, misreporting, insider abuses and fraud, violation and non-compliance of internal controls put in place, etc. Causes of bank failures is the locus standi of the discussion of corporate governance in chapter one. Several definition of corporate governance coming from different schools of thought was attempted, analyzed and common position identified. Summarily, corporate governance was defined as the way and manner corporate organizations are directed and controlled by the board for the interest of the stakeholders. Wealth distributions to the stakeholders which is one of the poignant issues corporate governance addressed was central to this study. Review of literature historically traced back bank distress in Nigeria from pre -independence to date. Reasons for the recorded failures were also identified. Aims, principles and provisions of corporate governance were discussed in chapter two. Legal perspective was given to the study by the highlighting on the provisions of OECD, Bank for international settlements, peterside’s Committee, Bankers Committee, King’s reports on corporate governance. The procedures adopted in data generations, data collection, measurement criteria, analysis and interpretations were highlighted in chapter three. The empirical approach adopted in the research gave the work a scientific outlook. Sufficient data generated were tabulated so as to aid analysis. Pictorial analytic tools –graphs were employed in analyzing the data. In data analysis, a comparative study of the values given to various stakeholders of Banks was done so as to determine their fairness or otherwise. Before arriving at a result data of various companies under review as contained in Value added statement in the past five years were carefully spooled and analyzed. The analyzed data presented in graph simplified the analysis. Conclusively, the study criticized the returns given to shareholders of banks and recommended a comparative review.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1           BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The increasing number of high profile corporate failures around the world has sparked off a lot of enquiry as to the reasons why well-established and respected companies failed. Corporate failure today is a global issue. On the international scence we saw the overlaps of large companies like Enron, Worldcom, Rank, Xerox, Rarmalat, Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) and large-scale crisis that rocked the Asian financial institutions. In Nigeria, corporate failure is very rampant in the financial services sector some years back and even at present.

Cases of corporate debacle abound in the death of Abacus Merchant Bank Nigeria Limited, Royal Merchant Bank Limited, Rims Merchant Bank Limited, Financial Merchant Bank Nigeria Limited, Progress Bank Plc to mention but a few (Al-Faki;2006). Soludo: 2005 hinted that by 1998 a total of 26 banks have been liquidated and at the time of consolidation in 2005, eleven banks were already dead literally. Outside the banking institution, creative accounts of African petroleum where its concealed debts in excess of N20 billion, over valuation of shares of involving Bonkolans securities and others are signals of impending doom for these companies. What then is the cause of corporate failure in local and international, listed and unlisted, quoted and unquoted, public and private companies?

John Clutterback in Al-Faki (2006) highlighted that companies that failed shares some common characteristics and they are: -

v                    Leadership of the company is vested in an individual who combines the office of chairman and chief executive with domineering tendency.

v                    Persistent violation and non-compliance with internal control of the company by the chief executive.
v                    Optimistic or even distorted rather than prudential financing reporting.

v                    Irregular board meetings, often without adequate information given in advance.
v                                  Minimal disclosure in the accounts of the company.

It is the combination of these factors that undermine the ability of companies to withstand economic downturns turns leading to a collapse.

In the Nigerian Banking Industry, issues such as lack of probity, transparency, integrity and accountability, inflation of balance sheet with unearned income, weak capital base, unskilled and inefficient management also contributed to death of many banks. Uche, 2001 identified the reasons of early indigenous banks failures as mismanagement and accounting incompetence. These are the issues today’s legislation need to combat with since yester years’ provision seemed to be adequate.

What then is adequacy of bank legislation and controlling and regulating the banking practices in the industry? The question is pertinent, because in spite of the existing legislations, a number of failures and distresses have been recorded in the industry. In an attempt to design codes, that will be appropriate to quell these irregularities, a global phenomenon termed “Corporate Governance” came into existence. Today, it has become a contemporary issue, which has dominated the interest of all business, legal and government circles worldwide. In the Nigerian scene, the provisions in the code of Corporate Governance was designed to augment the provisions of Company and Allied Matters Act 1990 (CAMA), Bank and other Financial Institution Act (BOFID) 2004, Failed banks (Recovery of Debts) and financial malpractices in Bank Act 2004, Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation Act, 2006, Money Laundering (prohibition) Act 2004, Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (Establishment) Act 2004, Prudential Guidelines and other relevant banking codes and prudential guidelines for Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria.(2010)....

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 112 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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