DETERMINANT PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PARAMETERS PRESENT IN THE TANKER SUPPLIED WATER (CASE STUDY OF ENUGU METROPOLIS)

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 BACKGROUND
Water is one of the most important and most precious natural resources. It is essential in the life of all living organisms from the simplest plant and micro organisms to the most complex living system known as human body. Water is a combination of hydrogen and oxygen atoms, with a chemical formula, H 2O and known to be the most abundant compound (70%) on earth surface. It is significant due to its unique chemical and physical properties.Access to safe drinking water is key to sustainable development and essential to food production, quality health and poverty reduction. Safe drinking water is essential to life and a satisfactory safe supply must be made available to consumers. Water is thus becoming a crucial factor for development and the quality of life in many countries. In individual arid areas it has become a survival factor. Therefore, water intended for human consumption must not contain pathogen,germs or harmful chemicals; because water contaminated with microorganisms is the cause of epidemics. That is good drinking water is not a luxury but one of the most essential requirements of life itself. However, developing countries, like Nigeria, have suffered from a lack of access to safe drinking water from improved sources and to adequatesanitation services. The WHOrevealed that seventy five percent of all diseases in developing countries arise from polluted drinking water. Therefore; water quality concerns are often the most important component for measuring access to improved water sources. Acceptable quality shows the safety of drinking water in terms of its physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters. International and local agencies have established parameters to determine biological and physicochemical quality of drinking water. The problems associated with chemical constituents of drinking water arise primarily from their ability to cause adverse health effects after prolonged periods of exposure, of particular concern are contaminants that have cumulative toxic properties, such as heavy metals and substances that are carcinogenic. Mahmoud etal 2003.also stated that the most common problems in household water supplies may be attributed to hardness, iron, sulfides, sodium chloride, alkalinity, acidity, and disease-producing pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses. In addition to this International Agency for Research on cancer reported that the use of chemical disinfectants in water treatment or construction materials used in water supply system usually results in the formation of the chemical by-products, some of which are potentially hazardous. This means drinking water is a vehicle for disease transmission. Therefore, it is desirable to control the intake of these potentially toxic chemicals from drinking water because the intake from other sources which are food or air may be difficult to avoid. About 97% water exists in oceans that is not suitable for drinking and only 3% is fresh water wherein 2.97% is comprised by glaciers and ice caps and remaining little portion of 0.3% is available as a surface and ground water for human use (Miller et al,.1997). Fresh water is already a limiting resource in many parts of the world. In the next century, it will become even more limiting due to increased population, urbanization and climate change (Jackson et al., 2001).
Over 50% of the Nigerian population depends on Ground water for drinking water. Ground water is also one of our most important source of water, it comes from rain, sleet and hail that soak into the ground.The water moves down into the ground because of gravity, passing between particles of soil, sand, gravel, or rock, until it reaches a depth where the ground is filled or saturated with water.  The source of most tanker distributed water in Enugu metropolis water source is ground water (bore holes). Unfortunately groundwater is susceptible to pollutants which affect their physiochemical characteristics and microbiological quality. Groundwater contamination occurs when man made products such as gasoline, oil and chemicals get into the groundwater and cause it to become unsafe and unfit for human use. Materials from the lands surface can move through the soil and end up in the groundwater. For example, pesticides and fertilizers can find their way into groundwater supplies overtime.  Toxic substances from mining sites, and used motor oil also may seep into ground. In addition, it is possible for untreated faecal materials open defecate from septic tanks and toxic chemicals from ground storage tanks and leaky landfills to contaminate groundwater.

Prevention of groundwater pollution requires effective monitoring of physiochemical and microbiological parameters. In most countries, the principal risks to human health associated with consumption of polluted water are microbiological in nature. The bacteriological examination of water has a special significance in pollution studies, as it is a direct measurement of deleterious effect of pollution on human health. Coliform are the major microbial indicator of monitoring water quality. The detection of Escherichia coli provides definite evidence of faecal pollution; in practice, the detection of thermotolerant (faecal) Coliform bacteria is an acceptable alternative.

1.2 Statement of problem
 In developing countries (e.g.Nigeria) the drinking quality of water is continuously being contaminated and hazardous for human use due to high growth of population, expansion in industries, discharging of waste water and chemical effluents into canals and other water sources. According to recent estimates, the quantity of available water in developing regions of South Asia, Middle East and Africa is decreasing sharply while quality of water is deteriorating rapidly due to fast urbanization, industrialization, land degradation etc.
In addition, the physical condition of water (colour, taste and odour) might render it undrinkable as it can be rejected by end-users. For this reason, water quality assessment and continuous monitoring are of utmost importance. 
Enugu metropolis has witnessed remarkable expansion, growth and development activities such as buildings, road, constructions and many other anthropogenic activities that may affect their quality of water

1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
 The aim of this study is to determining the parameters present in the tanker supplied water & its quality through physiochemical and biochemical analysis.
Other objectives are:
I)                   To identify the presence or absence of toxic chemicals
II)                To identify the presence or absence of microbial contaminants
III)             To assess if the water qualityare in order of the Nigerian drinking water standards.

1.4 Significance of study
In Enugu metropolis, most people rely on private water supplies such as wells, tanker supplied water and streams. Quality water is vital to the social, health and economic well being of the people. Monitoring your water quality by having it tested regularly is an important part of maintaining a safe and reliable source. Testing the water allows a knowledgeable approach to address the specific problems of a water supply. This helps ensure that the water source is being properly protected from potential contamination. It is important to test the suitability of your water quality for its intended purpose, whether it is livestock watering, irrigation, spraying, or drinking water. This will assist you in making informed decisions about your water and how you use it. This study is to help provide water quality testing information that will assist residents using a private water supply. It provides information on the importance of water quality monitoring and how you can get it tested.

The quality of a water source may change over time, sometimes suddenly. Many changescan go unnoticed as the water may look, smell and taste the same as it always did.Monitoring your water quality is necessary to ensure your treatment system is workingeffectively, providing the best quality water for your intended use.The water you are using may or may not have problems with it. Many people are aware ofsome of their water quality problems. For example, some people may be plagued withhigh concentrations of iron, which causes aesthetically unpleasing coloring and staining.Unfortunately, not all water quality problems can be easily detected without propertesting. The water may look good but may actually be unsuitable for the specificapplication you are using it for.Proper sampling, testing and interpretation of the results are required to determine thesuitability of your water supply and identify any problems it may have.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 56 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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