DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A VEHICLE TRACKING AND ACCIDENT ALERT SYSTEM USING GPS AND GSM MODULE

ABSTRACT
This project is about the Design and Construction of a Vehicle Tracking and Accident Alert System (VTAA) using GPS and GSM Technology. It comprises of integration between GPS receiver, microcontroller and GSM module, and of course the push button for accident alert activation. The combination of all this technology will produce our VTAA system. The GPS module receive the coordinate of the point at which the system is located, controlled by the user using command interfaces through GSM module as a transmitter and receiver of data. This project is of two basic parts, the hardware and the software development. The hardware development includes the GPS, Push button and the microcontroller wiring connection, and its integration with GSM module. The software development includes the programming of the microcontroller (ATMEGA 8) with the source code, GSM message command, the NMEA protocol command and Google map API achievement. This system is controlled by users with centralized command interface through text.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION TO A TRACKING SYSTEM
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.2.1 STEEPLE ANALYSIS
1.3 MOTIVATION
1.4 PROJECT AIM AND OBJECTIVES
1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY
1.6 ORGANIZATION OF REPORT

CHAPTER TWO
2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2 BACKGROUND
2.2.1 HISTORY OF GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)
2.2.2 GSM TECHNOLOGY
2.2.3 GSM MODEM
2.2.4 SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY MODULE (SIM)
2.2.5 AIRBAG SAFETY
2.3 SURVEY OF THE RELATED WORK
2.4 DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES USED IN TRACKING SYSTEM
2.4.1 ACTIVE AND PASSIVE TRACKING

CHAPTER THREE
3.1 METHODOLOGY
3.2 MAJOR COMPONENTS USED
3.2.1 MICROCONTROLLER
3.2.2 GPS (GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM)
3.2.3 GSM
3.2.4 POWER SUPPLY
3.3 PROCEDURES OF DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
3.4 WORKING PRINCIPLE OF THE VEHICLE TRACKING AND ACCIDENT ALERT
3.5 SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE

CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 TESTING, ANALYSIS OF RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1.1 HARDWARE ASSEMBLING AND TESTING
4.2 RESULTS
4.3 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
4.3.1 PERFORMNCE ANALYSIS USING DIFFERENT SIM
4.3.2 BENEFITS AND APPLICATION OF VAAT SYSTEM
4.4 PROJECT MANAGEMENT
4.5 RISK MANAGEMENT
4.5.1 HACKERS
4.5.2 SURGE AND THUNDER EFFECT
4.6 ETHICAL ISSUES
4.6.1 PRIVACY
4.6.2 DATA OWNERSHIP

CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 CONCLUSIONS
5.2 LIMITATIONS
5.3 FUTURE WORK
5.4 DESIGN CONSTRAINTS
5.5 CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE
5.6 CRITICAL APPRAISAL
REFERENCES
APPENDIX


CHAPTER ONE


1.0 Introduction
to a Tracking System


The  vehicle  tracking  system  is  a  total  security  and  fleet
management  solution.  It  is
the
technology  used  to  determine  the  location  of  a  vehicle  using
different  methods  like  GPS
and
other  navigation
system  operating  via  satellite  and  ground
based  stations.  Modern  vehicle

tracking system uses GPS technology to monitor and locate our vehicle anywhere on earth, but sometimes different types of automatic vehicle location technology are also used. The vehicle tracking system is fitted inside the car that provides location and the data can even be stored and downloaded to a computer which can be used for analysis in future. This system is an essential device for tracking car any time the owner wants to monitor it and today it is extremely popular among people having expensive cars, used as theft prevention and recovery of the stolen car. The data collected can be viewed via SMS [receiving the position coordinate} or on electronic maps via internet and software.

However, the high demand of vehicles has also increased the traffic hazards and the road accidents. Life of the people is under high risk. This is because of the lack of best emergency facilities available in our country. An automatic alert system for vehicle accidents is introduced in this project. This system which can detect accidents in significantly less time and sends the basic information to a defined contact (say next of kin and emergency dispatch Centre) within a few seconds covering geographical coordinates, the time and angle in which a vehicle accident had occurred. This alert message is sent to the central emergency dispatch server in a short time so that the emergency dispatch server will inform the ambulances which are near to that location, which will help in saving the valuable lives.

When the accident occurs the alert message is sent automatically to the central emergency dispatch server. The message is sent through the GSM module and the location of the accident is detected with the help of the GPS module. The accident can be detected precisely with the help of vibration sensor. This application provides the optimum solution to poor emergency facilities provided to the road accidents in the most feasible way.


The project, “Vehicle Tracking and Accident Alert System using GPS and GSM Technology” is designed and developed to accommodate the needs of today’s vehicle fleet company to keep track on their fleets. It is a very useful and versatile device, and in fact it is able to be used by anybody with the need to keep track on their valuable goods, increase safety and not just by the vehicle fleets company. This chapter will be covering the general background of this project, its concept, objectives, scope and the problem statement.

A GPS-GPRS based tracking system gives all the specifications about the location of a vehicle. The system utilizes geographic position and time information from the Global Positioning Satellites in order to track the movement of the vehicle. Google Maps is used for mapping the location. The GSM modem fetches the GPS location and sends it to the server using GPRS. The device includes modern hardware and software components that help to track and locate automobiles both online and offline. A tracking system comprises mainly three parts- vehicle unit, fixed based station and database with software system (ASHUTOSH et al, 2014)

The integration of GPS and GSM was first established using SMS as a method of transmitting GPS coordinates. The inclusion of GPRS technology to transmit location coordinates to a remote server facilitates the tracking of object remotely using any computer connected to the web.

A GPS tracking unit is a device that uses the Global Positioning System to determine the precise location of a vehicle or other asset to which it is attached. A GPS receiver is operated by a user on Earth, it measures the time taken by radio signals to travel from four or more satellites to its location, it then calculates its distance from each satellite, and from this calculation it determines the longitude, latitude, and altitude of that position. By following triangulation or trilateration methods the tracking system determines the location of the vehicle easily and accurately (ASHUTOSH et al, 2014). Trilateration is a method of determining the relative positions of objects using the geometry of triangles. To "triangulate," a GPS receiver accurately measures the time taken by the satellite to make its brief journey to Earth(less than a tenth of a second) and hence measures its distance from the satellite using the travel time of the radio signal. To determine the distance between it and the satellite, the measured time is multiplied by the speed of a radio wave that is 300,000 km (186,000 miles) per second (ASHUTOSH et al, 2014). The coordinates of latitude and longitude can be sent to the user on request via SMS, or it may be transmitted and stored in the database, using a cellular or satellite modem that is the GSM modem embedded in the unit. This enables the user to display the asset's location on the Google map either in real time or later whenever the user wants the data for further analysis.

1.1      Background of the Project
A vehicle tracking and Accident Alert system consists of an electronic device installed on a vehicle so that it could be tracked by its owner or a third-party for its position. Most of today’s vehicle tracking system uses Global Positioning System (GPS) to get an accurate reading of the vehicle position. Communication components such as cellular (GSM) and satellite transmitter will be combined to transmit the vehicle’s position to remote user. Vehicle’s information can be viewed by using software on a computer. Vehicle tracking systems are commonly used by fleet operators for fleet management functions such as routing, dispatch, on-board information and security.

Other applications include monitoring driving behavior, such as an employer of an employee, or a parent with a teen driver. Vehicle tracking systems are also popular in consumer vehicles as a theft prevention and retrieval device. Police can simply follow the signal emitted by the tracking system and locate the stolen vehicle. When used as a security system, a Vehicle Tracking System may serve as either an addition to or replacement for a traditional Car alarm. The existence of vehicle tracking device then can be used to reduce the insurance cost, because the loss-risk of the vehicle drops significantly.

Vehicle tracking is also useful in many other applications such as Asset Tracking scenarios where companies needing to track valuable assets for insurance or other monitoring purposes can now plot the real-time asset location on a map and closely monitor movement and operating status. Meanwhile, in field sales mobile, the situation of sales professionals can easily access real-time locations. For example, in unfamiliar areas, they can locate themselves as well as customers and prospects, get driving directions and add nearby last-minute appointments to itineraries. Benefits include increased productivity, reduced driving time and increased time spent with customers and prospects.

1.2      Statement of the Problem
The global issue related to a constantly increasing crime rate needs to be urgently addressed by both developed and developing countries. In Nigeria, 2,000 cases of car theft in average are reported each year in [Nairaland.com, 2011], and the number is still increasing. If not recovered soon, stolen vehicles are generally sold, revamped or even burned if the resale price is considered to be too low. Once a vehicle is stolen, it becomes hard to locate it and track it, which considerably decreases the chances of recovering it. In this work, we propose the design and.......

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 67 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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