AWARENESS AND PARTICIPATION OF MOTHERS ON IMMUNIZATION IN ESAN-WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, EDO STATE

ABSTRACT
Vaccines are the greatest boon and achievement of modern medicine. Assessing immunization coverage helps to evaluate progress in achieving program objectives and in improving service delivery. This study aimed to assess mothers’ awareness and participation in immunization. A cross sectional descriptive design was used. This study included 200 mothers who were visited in their homes, place of work, markets, and churches in Esan West. One tool was utilized to collect the necessary data, a self structured questionnaire interview sheet. It was found that 92.5% of mothers were aware of immunization with only 7.5% who said they weren’t aware. Fully immunized children represented 65.0% and partially immunized children stood at 35.0%. None of the children was reported to have not received any of the vaccine. None of the mothers with tertiary education defaulted in immunization schedule as compared with those with no formal education, primary education, and secondary level of education that recorded 29.0%, 20.0%, and 15.0% respectively. Majority of the mothers who were farmers defaulted in immunization 28.0%, followed by traders 20.0% with unemployed and students being 6.0% and10.0%. It was recorded that 82.0% of the mothers were aware of the side effects of immunization with 18.0% that wasn’t. It was noticed that all the illiterate mothers had one reason or the other not to complete the immunization as scheduled 64.0% compared with educated mothers. Based on the results of the present study, many mothers are aware of immunization and shows active participation too. Though some mothers don’t go regularly for immunization of their children as a result they miss due dates of vaccination. Low literacy level of mothers is a matter of worry. Heath workers should embark on routine education campaigns at both antenatal andpostnatal sessions and child welfare clinics stressing the total number of times mothers need to visit the clinic to complete the immunization and targeting the age group 20-29 years who defaulted most in the drop out category.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Good health is the foundation upon which individuals and families build long, healthy lives. When unburdened by sickness and disease, children can attend school, and their parents can work, grow or buy food, and build a future for their families. While all primary health services are important, perhaps the most basic and cost-effective is childhood immunization.
 Immunization against diseases such as polio, tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis saves the lives of approximately three million people each year. Immunization also prevents many more millions from suffering debilitating illness and lifelong disability. It is no wonder that many people feel that widespread access to lifesaving vaccines is one of the greatest public health achievements of all time.
Immunization is one of the most effective, safest & efficient Public Health Interventions .While the impact of Immunization on childhood morbidity & mortality has been great , it’s full potential has yet to be reached. Thousands of children still die from Vaccine-Preventable diseases each year.
Main reasons identified for poor  coverage includes low awareness level and inadequacy of mothers participation in Routine Immunization . The growth and development of children is a long term contribution of country as a whole.
The key to attain the goal of health for all primary health care  emphasizes on the preventive principles. One of the most cost effective health interventions is vaccine for all infectious disease.
Immunization is a high priority area in care of infants and children. High immunization rates have almost eliminated many infectious diseases which used to decimate sizable of the population for countries. A number of deadly and disabling infectious diseases can be prevented by timely administration of vaccines when child is effectively immunized at the right age, most of these diseases are either entirely prevented or at least modified so that child suffer from a mild disease without any disability.
Immunization is one of the most effective, safest & efficient Public Health Interventions. While the impact of Immunization on childhood morbidity &  mortality has been great, full potential, has not yet been reached. Still, Thousands of children die fromVPDs each year.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In the  past, many children died before the age of 5 or before the school age due to vaccine preventable diseases like poliomyelitis, diphtheria, whooping cough, etc,because they were not aware that these diseases could be prevented.
Therefore the researchers want to assess the level of awareness and participation of mothers in immunization in Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State.

OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
Ø Determine mothers’ level of awareness of immunization programmes.
Ø Examine mothers’ level of active participation in immunization.
Ø Identify contributing factors to lack of awareness and participation of mothers in immunization.
Ø Suggest measures that can be used to increase the level of awareness of mothers in immunization.
Ø Suggest measures that will encourage increased level of mothers participation in immunization.

SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The significance of this study is to enhance the general health of children through the education of mothers on the importance of immunization and how beneficial it is to their children if they actively participated in the programme. This will in turn reduce morbidity and mortality amongst children and also aid the following group of people;
1.     the mothers
2.     The health center
3.     The ministry of health,Edo state.
The mothers: the mothers will be advised properly on what immunization is. The information gathered will be of great importance in increasing the level of awareness and participations in immunization.
The health center: the suggestions made will be used as a source of correction measure to health workers who in one way or the other may have contributed to th evanescence lukewarm attitude of mothers when they bring their children for immunization through lack of health education and follow up visit to trace defaulters.
Ministry of Health, Edo state: the findings may serve as a clue for Edo state Ministry of Health to make better plans in ensuring adequate provision of vaccines and training more people in health sector to promote child immunization in Edo state.

RESEARCH QUESTION
To enable the researcher have a guide to a successful research, the following questions were asked.
Ø What was the level of awareness of mothers on immunization in Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State?
Ø What was the level of participation of mothers in immunization in Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State?
Ø What were the reasons for lack of mothers active participation in immunization?
Ø What measures were suggested to increase mothers level of awareness and participation in immunization?
Ø What were the determinants of immunization awareness and participation of mothers in Esan West?
HYPOTHESIS
H1 Educational level of mothers influence their participation in immunization
H2 Occupation of mothers influence their level of participation in immunization

SCOPE OF STUDY
The scope of this study is limited to the awareness and participation of mothers in immunization in Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State. 

LIMITATION OF STUDY
During the course of this study, some constraints were encountered and they are considered as limitation to the study;
1.     Material- it was difficult laying hands on useful books and journals for this project
2.     Financial condition- financial constraint was a major problem in printing of questionnaires, locating various health centers; going to market squares where mothers are populated and binding the project.
3.     Road network- this was a major challenge in the course of this research as the roads are hardly motor able hence the need for use of motorcycles.      

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. Awareness: This is the ability to directly know and perceive or a state of being conscious of something.
2. Participation: The action of taking part in something.
3. Mother: A female parent of a child.
4. Immunization: This is the process whereby a person is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically by administration of a vaccine.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 66 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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