AN ASSESSMENT OF LEVEL OF LANGUAGE ENDANGERMENT IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF EGGON LANGUAGE OF NASARAWA STATE

ABSTRACT
The contribution of the study is to investigate and find out whether Eggon Language of Nasarawa State is endangered, the degree of its endangerment, factors responsible for its endangerment and whether the endangerment is reversible. It contains five chapters with chapter one as general introduction which contains the Statement of the problem, the aim and objective of the study, research questions, justification of the study, the scope, basic assumptions and significance of the study. In chapter two, the related literatures have been reviewed in which general observations on the review and the ground for the present study have been provided. Chapter three contains issues on the research methodology in which a part from the library work, three hundred and eighty one (381) questionnaires has been filled by equal number of respondents and the same number has been interviewed, as informants, in collecting the data of the research. Area and population samples have been determined and the latter has been based on 381 respondents for a total population of 50,000 – 52,000 etc. The chapter also discloses the theoretical framework of the study, its assessment and the justification for using it in the present study as the pioneer work that has empirically tested the framework. After ascertaining the endangerment of Eggon, the work has endeavoured to discover the degree of the endangerment of the language and has been found to be severely endangered. The research has also discussed that the intergenerational language use of the Eggon, and the negative attitude of the native speakers towards the language have been discovered the major factors that have initiated and hastened the endangerment of the language. However, the endangerment has been found to be reversible as the language is not extinct. It is still spoken by some generations and transmitted by some parents. Finally, the research recommends that, to revitalize the language, there is an urgent need to document and standardize the language and adequate pedagogical, grammatical and literary materials should be provided.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page
Abstract
Table
Definitions of technical terms
Table of contents

Chapter One: General Introduction
1.1       Introduction
1.2       Statement of the Problem
1.3       Aim and Objectives of the Study
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       Justification of the Study
1.6       The Scope of the Study
1.7       Basic Assumptions of the Study
1.8       Significance of the Study
1.9       Languages of Nasarawa State and Neighbouring Eggon Areas

Chapter Two: Review of the Related Literature
2.1       Introduction
2.2       Language Endangerment
2.3       Endangered Languages in Nigeria
2.4       Endangered Languages in Nasarawa State
2.5       Factors and Causes of Language Endangerment
2.6       Assessing Language Vitality and Endangerment
2.6.1 Stages of Language Endangerment
2.6.2 Language Revitalization and Maintenance
2.7       Justification for Language Revitalization and Maintenance
2.8       Responsibility for Language Revitalization and Maintenance
2.9       Revitalization Programmes
2.10 Revitalized Endangered Languages
2.11 General Observation on the Review

Chapter Three: Research Methodology and Theoretical Framework
3.1       Introduction
3.2       Library Research
3.3       Observation
3.4       Written Questionnaire
3.5       Description of the Questionnaire
3.6       Verbal Interview
3.7       Description of the Interview
3.8       Sample of the Study
3.8.1 Area Sample of the Study
3.8.2    Population Sample of the Study
3.9 The Theoretical Framework of the Study (EGIDS)
3.9.1    Evaluating the Framework
3.9.2    Justification for Employing the Framework in the Present Study
3.10 Data Presentation
3.10.1  Endangerment of the Eggon Language: Data Presentation from the Questionnaire
3.10.2  Factors for the Endangerment of Eggon: Data Presentation from the Questionnaire
3.10.3  Endangerment of the Eggon Language: Data Presentation from the First Interview
3.10.4  Factors for the Endangerment of Eggon: Data Presentation from the first Interview
3.10.5  Factors for the Endangerment of Eggon: Data Presentation from the Second Interview

Chapter Four: Data Analysis and Discussion
4.1       Introduction
4.2       The Endangerment of the Eggon Language
4.3       The Degree of Endangerment of the Eggon Language
4.4       Factors for the Endangerment of the  Eggon Language
4.4.1    Migration Factor
4.4.2    Exogamy
4.4.3    Economic Factor
4.4.4    Education Factor
4.4.5    Socio-Political Factor
4.4.6    Religious Factor
4.4.7    Negative Attitude of the Native Speakers towards their Language
4.4.8 Inability of the Eggon Language to Respond to New Domain
4.5 The Use of the Eggon Language by the Native Speakers
4.6       The Reversibility of the Eggon Language Endangerment
4.7. Conclusion

Chapter Five: Summary, Concluding Remarks and Recommendations
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Summary
5.3       Concluding Remarks
5.4       Recommendation
            References
            Appendix i Sample of the Research Questionnaire

CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
Language is a functional aspect of human nature that plays significant roles in the General endeavour of man. This irrespective of whether the language form is oral, written or even semiotic. It is evident that Nigeria is bestowed with linguistic variety which offers insight into cultural and psychological perspective with which people conduct their daily affairs. In this regard, Nigeria is then bestowed with various developmental opportunities through its numerous languages. Definitely, Nigeria is one of the frontline multilingual countries of the world. This is inherent in the fact that “Africa, itself, is considered to be perhaps the most multilingual continent in the world, with more languages spoken per capita than anywhere else” (Yemi, 2007:5).

Currently, the languages listed for Nigeria numbered 527 languages out of which 520 are living languages and 7 are extinct. 10, out of the living languages are non-indigenous, 20 are institutional, 78 are developing, 351 are vigorous while 27 are threatened and 44 are dying (Lewis, Simons and Fennig, 2016:1). Therefore, Nigeria is a country of many languages. This multilingual characteristic of Nigeria is definitely inherent in many states of the federation with Nasarawa State being one of them. Unfortunately, the most remarkable implications of multilingualism is the fact that it leads to the subsequent endangerment of some of the languages involved in the process which, in turn, gives birth to language extinction (Wardhaugh, 2000:98).

There are thirty six (36) states in Nigeria and the Federal Capital Territory Abuja, including Nasarawa State, the area of this study. Among them, the areas with endangered languages are, Adamawa, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Edo, Gombe, Jigawa and Kaduna States. The rest are Kebbi, Nasarawa, Niger, Plateau, Rivers, Taraba, Yobe States and Abuja.

Nigeria‟s multilingual character coupled with the fact that language as an overall curious phenomenon has made research into language relations (such as colonization, endangerment and extinction) a vogue in today‟s language studies in Nigeria. Ideally, the purpose of conducting a research of this kind falls between the range of understanding the nature of multilingualism, its sociolinguistic outcome and preventing or rather reversing the linguistically unpleasant consequences such as language endangerment and language death or extinction. This study selects Eggon, as one of the languages of Nasarawa State, with a view to studying language endangerment in Nigeria.


In the presentations of Kigbu (1984) and Adgidzi (1999), they said the Eggon oral traditions narrates that the Eggon ancestors originated from the hill country in the Far East (Egietne) where their founder (Eggon) first dwelled and practiced traditional religion (Ashum Cult) and traditional farming. Some Eggon ancestors shifted to a place called Ngazargamu in the area of Lake Chad where they lived for another time using their traditional religion and agriculture. Around 11 century AD, some Eggon ancestors moved from Ngazargamu to southward with Abro Agbi as the leader, and

his brothers Jade Oka and Ambina. They settled in Kwararrafa, a place east of present Wukari town. During their stay, they faced epidemic problem that led to the death of some of them. Consequently, some Eggons had to migrate from the area to south east direction until they reach river Arikya. There, Jade Oka, Ambina and some others crossed the river to another settlement called Wamba while Abro, his family and some others moved to the west of the river and established a town of Ogba (Arugba) east of present Shabu town in Lafia local government area.
At the middle of 11th century AD, Abro and his team moved next to a new settlement called Angro. He had chosen the area for defence mechanism. In the new settlement, Abro gave birth to three sons, Anzo, Abe and Offo from the most beloved wife. After some time, he also had another son in person of Ehwlo (Eholo) from another wife. According to other traditions, Ehwlo (Eholo) was, for one reason or the other, the adopted son of Abro. Now, whatever the case, Abro was more affectionate to his three sons of the most beloved wife than the other son, adopted or otherwise, which created some enmity and personal hatred between the two sides. The most considerable part of the scene was that, when Abro reached oldest age, he trusted most of his precious property to the sons of the beloved wife and Ehwlo (Eholo) discriminated. For that reason, Ehwlo (Eholo) became angry and attempted killing Abro. The dichotomy in Abro‟s family gave birth to the two sub-tribal divisions of Anzo and Eholo. From there, hostilities continued, from time to time, between the two sides. God so kind Eggon were bestowed with a centre forum called “Eggon Federation Council of Elders of Peace” situated in Ogako in Ekudugba Clan. This council of Elders of Peace....

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 160 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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