A STUDY OF RURAL WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATION FOR DEVELOPMENT IN KADUNA STATE OF NIGERIA

ABSTRACT
The purpose of the study was to investigate the causes, effects and possible solutions to the low participation of rural women in education using Kaduna State as its focus. This was prompted by the increase in the illiteracy level of the rural women and its implication for national development. The specific objectives of the study include: An investigation into the extent of rural women participation in planning their education, cultural/community restrictions and other factors that have contributed to the low participation of rural women in education. Also investigated are the influence of low participation of the rural women on national development and the strategies for improving their participation in education. The study generally aimed at improving rural women participation in education through participatory planning that can emerge with a relevant curriculum for women education. Two thousand and sixty nine (2069) respondents made up of 1,600 rural women and 469 literacy facilitators from the 19 rural local governments of Kaduna State were randomly selected for the study. The questionnaire was used in gathering data for the study. The analysis of data was on the causes and effects of low participation in education on national development and the strategies for improving participation in education. These were statistically tested using the means, standard deviations and the t-test for significance in the differences in the mean ratings of respondents as presented in the five hypotheses.          The   results   largely   showed    non-significant      differences.
Consequently, the null hypotheses were accepted. The specific findings include: rural women were not involved in planning literacy programs meant for them. Cultural restrictions and other factors such as poverty, the non-chalant attitude of women towards education, inadequate funding, the frequent change in government and frequent revision of policies on education have also contributed to the low participation of women in education. It was discovered that the low participation of women in education has limited their contribution to national development. This is made manifest in their inadequate development of skills needed for development, limited participation in the process of governance, and inability to take up some job opportunities. Recognizing the implication of this for educational planning, a careful strategy that aims at meeting the needs of the rural women was identified. The study therefore proposed a participatory planned education for rural women using the principle of Participatory Rural Appraisal.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
Table of contents
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 HYPOTHESES
1.6 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.8 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS

CHAPTER TWO:
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 OVERVIEW
2.2 GENERAL CONSIDERATION OF BASIC ISSUES
2.3 EXTENT OF RURAL WOMEN’S PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATION AND PLANNING
2.4 CULTURAL RESTRICTIONS AND OTHER FACTORS MILITATING
AGAINST RURAL WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN  EDUCATION
2.5 INFLUENCE OF LOW PARTICIPATION OF RURAL WOMEN IN
LITERACY EDUCATION ON NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
2.6 STRATEGIES FOR ENCOURAGING RURAL WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATION
2.6.1 Principles Of Participatory Learning And Action
2.6.2 Strategies By The Government
2.6.3 Strategies By NGOs And Other Bodies
2.6.4 Strategies For The Education Planners
2.6.5 Strategies For Communities And Religious Bodies
2.7       ADVANTAGES OF PARTICIPATION OF WOMEN IN EDUCATION
2.8       SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER THREE:            METHODS
3.1 OVERVIEW
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.3 POPULATION
3.4 SAMPLING TECHNIQUES AND SAMPLING SIZE
3.5 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
3.5.1 Validity
3.5.2 Reliability
3.6 PROCEDURE FOR DATA COLLECTION
3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FOUR:  RESULTS
4.1       OVERVIEW
4.2       PRESENTATION OF DATA
4.2.1    Rural Women’s Involvement In The Planning Of Their Literacy Education
4.2.2    Community Restrictions And Low Participation Of Rural Women In Education
4.2.3    Other Factors Responsible For The Low Participation Of Rural Women In Education
4.2.4    Influence Of Low Participation Of Rural Women In Education On National Development
4.2.5    Strategies For Encouraging Rural Women Participation In Education
4.3       HYPOTHESIS TESTING
4.4       SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

CHAPTER FIVE:    DISCUSSION OF RESULTS, SUMMARY OF
                        FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1       OVERVIEW
5.2       DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
5.2.1    Extent Of Rural Women Participation In Planning Their Education programs
5.2.2    Cultural/Community Restrictions And The Low Participation Of Rural Women In Education
5.2.3    Other Factors Responsible For The Low Participation Of Rural Women In Education
5.2.4    Influence Of Low Participation Of Rural Women In Education On National Development
5.2.5    Strategies For Encouraging Rural Women Participation In Education
5.3       SUMMARY OF MAJOR FINDINGS
5.3.1    Extent of Rural Women Participation in Planning Education
5.3.2. Cultural/Community Restrictions And The Low Participation Of Rural Women In Education
5.3.3.  Other Factors Responsible For The Low Participation Of Rural Women In Education
5.3.4. Influence Of Low Participation Of Rural Women In Education On National Development
5.3.5. Strategies For Encouraging Rural Women Participation In Education
5.4       CONCLUSION
5.4.1. Implication For Educational Planning
5.5.      RECOMMENDATIONS
5.6       SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDY
5.7       CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE
5.8.      LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
5.9       Model For Planning Education For Rural Women
REFERENCES
APPENDIX

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1         BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Rural women play important role in improving general aspects of rural life. However, in most developing countries, women (and even more so, rural women) are still an under-privileged group with an inferior social status (Okojie, 1983; National Population Commission, 1999). Within the rural sector, Okojie (1983), sees the largest group of the poor as comprising the millions of women (including girls) who by their work in the fields produce a large part of the food consumed in the country, yet are disadvantaged in many areas. A closer examination of the situation of rural women through this study will seek to reveal the low participation of rural women in education and the disadvantages of females in most rural sectors. Nevertheless, rural women’s participation in the socio-economic development of their country in recent years has become a topic of major concern hence, the need for it to be treated as a goal in its own right (International Labour Organization,1990; Olorude, 1995).

Although women’s participation in the socio-economic development of the country is receiving attention throughout the world, majority of them still live in rural areas, un-educated, living in abject poverty and deprivation (National Population Commission, 1999). This demands that their continued illiteracy has to be looked into and ways of bringing them out have to be devised. If these women produce a large part of our food, they indeed need to be educated to enable them know more about modern equipment that can help them carry out their farming and other important activities within the rural areas.

This becomes important as it has been found that education can enhance productivity and the ability of rural women so as to contribute to the national economy (Nwabueze, 1995). This researcher is of the view that rural women would be in a better position to use technologically developed equipment that may enhance their productivity if educated. This is because education’s concern is being modernized towards integration with the national economy (Rahman,1981).

Akangbou (1983) maintains that education is no longer an isolated industry from the national economy. Every system of education is supposed to be geared towards the development of its national economy and every segment of the society, including rural women should be equipped with education and training to enable it contribute to the national economy. Kaduna State of Nigeria is desirous to develop the ability of every member of the society (including rural women) to enhance their productivity and contribution to the development of the nation.
The Nigerian government having realised the benefit of education to its citizens emphasized the “equalization of opportunities” as one of the goals of the national policy on education (National Policy on Education, 2004). This means that there should be availability of an appropriate education for all citizens. It has however been discovered that a large segment of the Nigerian society (3,992,744 which represents about 44%) are still illiterates (National Population Commission,1999). This may be due to ignorance on the benefits of education, non-availability of an appropriate education, or through lack of opportunity to be educated (Okojie,1983; Olaide,1990 Nwabueze,1995). The case of the rural women is even more glaring as statistics shows that out of the 22,949,499 rural women in Nigeria, about 14,67,722 do not participate in any form of education. This means that it is only about 38.7% of rural women that are educated (National Population Comission,1999).
The goal of “education for all” has been pursued vigorously by the government through the introduction of different programmes such as the Universal Primary Education in 1976 and the Universal Basic Education in 1999. The introduction of the National Mass Literacy campaign in 1982 and the different adult education programmes are examples of Federal government’s efforts to achieve “education for all” as a deliberate national policy (Nwabueze,1995). Other programmes such as the Better Life for Rural Women by Mariam Babangida in 1986 and the Family Support Programme by Mariam Abacha in 1994, were introduced at various times to enable development hitherto concentrated in the urban areas to filter down to the rural women. However, the level of participation of rural women in such programmes in....

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Item Type: Ph.D Material  |  Attribute: 197 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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