Municipal solid wastes re-use and recycling have multiple socioeconomic and environmental benefits that have not been adequately examined in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The objectives of this research are to: examine the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of waste management entrepreneurs; identify the sources and destinations of recyclable municipal solid waste; analyse the quantity of waste materials (metal scraps, plastics and cans) recovered, reused and transported for recycling; identify the type of uses recyclable materials are put into in the study area; and examine the socioeconomic benefit of waste re-use and recycling. A total of 252 scrap metal/plastic collectors, scavengers and artisanal recyclers‘ were studied using purposive and snowball sampling techniques. Tables, percentages, charts and multiple linear regression techniques were used for the analysis. The results showed that majority of the waste collectors within the twelve localities of Zaria were less than 20 years old. Generally, the low educational level of the respondents indicates that formal educational qualification is not a major determinant of being an actor in this type of business. Cans and aluminium, scrap metal, assorted plastics, are the major materials that attract waste entrepreneurs in Zaria. about 71.8% of waste collectors collect waste from multiple sources and majority of the waste actors about 61.5% collect less than 100 kg of valuable waste materials every week. Products produced by artisanal recyclers from cans and scrap Aluminium includes majorly pots and frying pan. A relatively high proportion (56.7%) of plastic collectors disposes the assorted plastics to those involved in reuse like, bottling of locally made drinks (Zobo and Kunu), traditional herbs and honey. The average monthly income for about 43.3% was above N16, 000. 00 which is quite better compared with the Nigerian minimum wage standard. Also all the respondents claimed that no harmful solid substances were released into the environment as a result of artisanal recycling activity. Further, about 30% of waste management entrepreneurs are employers of labour, with 13.5% having more than 6 employees. The multiple regression analysis revealed that the number of people employed in waste business and quantity of waste collected have significant impact on their income with coefficients of 0.343 and 0.360 respectively, while the coefficient of multiple determination (R2) indicate a total variation of 42.5% at 5% level of significance. However, challenges militating against waste recycling in Zaria include lack of a functional recycling plant; price fluctuation and the cost of conveying recyclables to recycling plants outside the study area among others.

It is concluded that municipal solid waste re-use and recycling activities contribute more to waste management than the government owned agencies in the study area. Their activities in sustainable waste management should be incorporated into the state environmental protection agency institutional framework.

Title page
Table of contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
List of Plates

1.1       Background to the study
1.2       Statement of the research problem
1.3       Study aim and objectives
1.4       Justification for the study
1.5       Scope and delimitation of the study

2.1       Conceptual issues
2.1.1 Scavenging
2.1.2 Re-use
2.1.3 Recycling
2.2       Conceptual framework
2.3 Literature review
2.3.1    Waste management
2.3.2    Scavenging activities
2.3.3    Recycling activities
2.3.4    Re-use activities
2.3.5    Laws/regulations on solid waste management in Nigeria
2.3.6    Waste management practices
2.3.7    Integrated solid waste management approach
2.3.8    Benefits from ISWM
2.3.9    Constraints to effective ISWM
2.3.10 Sustainable waste management

3.1 Background of the study area
3.1.1    Location
3.1.2    The physical features of Zaria Weather and climate Geology of Zaria Drainage System Soil Vegetation
3.1.3    Population
3.1.4    Urban structure of Zaria
3.1.5    Socio-cultural and economic characteristics
3.2       Methodology
3.2.1    Types of data required
3.2.2    Sources of data Primary source of data Secondary source of data
3.2.3    Sampling technique and sample size
3.2.4    Techniques of data analysis

4.1 Socio-economic and Demographic Characteristics of Respondents
4.1.1    Age of respondents
4.1.2    Sex of respondents
4.1.3    Religion of respondents
4.1.4    Ethnic group of respondents
4.1.5    Educational qualification of respondents
4.1.6    Marital status of respondents
4.2       Waste collection, reuse and recycling
4.2.1    Sources of waste
4.2.2    Volume and Characteristics of Waste materials collected
4.2.3    Destinations of retrieved waste materials
4.2.4    Quantity of waste materials collected weekly by respondents
4.2.5    Artisanal recyclers among respondents
4.2.6    Assorted plastic collection and its utilization
4.2.7    Plastic bottle collections and reuse activities
4.3       Socio-economic benefit of waste management to WMEs
4.3.1    Income of respondents
4.3.2    Cost of assorted waste materials
4.3.3    Cost of a dozen of assorted plastics
4.3.4    Cost of conveying assorted waste materials
4.3.5    Cost of 1 tonne of waste material in recycling industries
4.3.6    Waste management enterprises and job creation
4.4       Challenges in waste management activities
4.5       Waste management and the state of the environment
4.5.1    Awareness of environmental benefit of waste management and theenvironment among respondents
4.5.2    Knowledge of waste as a threat to the environment
4.5.3    Multiple linear regression analysis of benefits from waste management activities

5.1       Summary
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendations
5.3.1    Specific Recommendations
5.3.2    The institutional framework for waste management in Zaria

The term ‗waste‘ has a different meaning for different people. In general, waste is ‗unwanted‘ for the person who discards it; a product or material that does not have a value anymore for the first user and is therefore thrown away. But ‗unwanted‘ is subjective and the waste could have value for another person in a different circumstance, or even in a different culture (Van de Klundert and Justine, 2001). There are many large industries that operate primarily or exclusively using waste materials such as paper and metals as their industrial raw materials. In the context of Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM), waste is regarded both as valueless and as a useful material providing a potential source of income. This real value of waste in many low-and middle-income countries (developing countries) is confirmed by the huge informal sector that lives on waste collection and recovery (Van de Klundert and Justine, 2001).

Waste, either in solid or liquid form is being produced since the dawn of human existence and it is not excessive to say, waste is the first thing generated before people are able to contribute to the betterment of lives. Due to social and environmental consequences, waste reuse, recycle and recovery have become essentials in minimizing the environmental damage that could occur through indiscriminate waste disposal (Sivapalan, Mohamad, Mohamad, and Muhd-Noor, 2005).

Davies (2008) notes that ―what some people consider to be waste materials or substances are considered a source of value by others‖ This relative attribute of waste can be compared with the concept of ‗resource‘ which has also been defined as material that has use-value and ―a reflection of human appraisal‖ (Jones and Hollier, 1977). Just as a material becomes a resource when it gains use-value, it also becomes waste when it loses its use-value. Like resources, waste is also a relative concept of human appraisal because what constitutes waste can vary from one person to another, one society to another and over time. As noted by Jessen (2002) ―our waste stream is actually full of resources going in the wrong direction‖.

Waste reuse and recycling as an alternative management option for waste is now recognized as an important approach to solving waste problem both in developed and developing world. Resource recovery from dumped consumer products is growing in significance, as waste is increasingly seen as a valuable resource. As human beings continuously realized that resources are finite, efficient use of resources and resources recovery from wastes are vital for global environmental sustainability (Zaman and Lehmann, 2011).

Developed countries generally rely on land filling to overcome the problem of waste accumulation (Girling, 2005; Pacione, 2005). The landfill seems to have a special attraction for municipal waste managers because it offers a cheap and convenient option for waste disposal compared with other strategies such as reuse, recycling and energy recovery (Charzan, 2002). In fact, with the exception of few countries like Austria, the Netherlands and Denmark who recycle substantial proportions of their waste, most countries in Europe and North America still dump the bulk of their municipal solid waste in landfills (OECD, 2002; Girling, 2005). For instance, In May, 2008, the inadequacy of waste disposal land created mayhem in the Italian city of Naples when the streets became laden with waste, blocking traffic and causing nuisance and hazards (Anthony, 2009). The European Commission's thematic strategy on the prevention and recycling of waste (European Union, 2005) called for life-cycle thinking in waste policies and moving towards a recycling society. This has in turn highlighted the opportunities for improved coherence between policies on waste and those on climate change and resource efficiency (European Environment Agency (EEA), 2011).

Recent studies in Africa have shown that the problem of waste management has become intractable and threatens to undermine the efforts of most city authorities. Kirondi (1999) observed that the city environment in most developing countries is characterized by heaps of garbage, overflowing waste containers, chocked drains, clogged streams and stinking gutters. Hardoy, Mitlin and Satterthwaite (2001) have, therefore, aptly described the Third World urban environment as among the most health and life threatening of all human environments. Scavenging has become a major feature of waste management in many cities in developing countries.

Scavenging is now regarded as a means to reduce the amount of solid waste to be disposed and help to save the natural resources that leads to sustainable development (Muktar, 2011). It creates jobs and extra income for people especially the poor. Scavenging makes people to sort out materials from wastes in exchange for money and supplies raw materials for recycling enterprises. Nigerian Environmental Study Action Team (NEST) (1991) revealed that; the present harsh economic condition in the country has led to the emergence of interest in waste recycling. It is now quite common to see scavengers at work on most waste disposal sites salvaging all items they believe to be salvageable, usable as they are or in demand as industrial raw materials. Examples include; unbroken bottles, rusty pots and pans, broken metal chair legs, leaking plastic containers, old car tyres and plastic shoes, clothes, buttons, and zip fasteners, as well as milk tins, among others. Despite the obvious health hazards which scavenging poses to both the scavengers and their customers, it must be admitted that it is helping the society to cope with solid waste disposal problem......

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 117 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
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